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Psi Chi Journal Spring 1997

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 2.1 | Spring 1997

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Socioeconomic Status and Democratic Parenting in Families
of Preadolescents With Spina Bifida

Trina A. Seefeldt, Grayson N. Holmbeck, Marianna C. Belvedere,
Lorin Gorey-Ferguson, Jennifer S. Hommeyer,
and Tracy Hudson, Loyola University of Chicago


ABSTRACT: The effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and the presence of a child with spina bifida on democratic parenting styles was investigated. Fifty-five families with children (8 or 9 years old) who have spina bifida were matched to 55 families with able-bodied children. Families in both groups were split into high and low SES subgroups (Hollingshead, 1975). These families, consisting of mother, father (when available), and child, took part in completing a videotaped "game” task in their home during the course of a longer interview. The game task was videotaped and coded, and 14 reliable codes (representing 6 code types) of democratic parenting were derived. A series of 2 X 2 analyses of variance revealed significant differences for 4 of the 14 macro-coded measures. Consistent with the hypotheses and prior research, the high SES groups scored higher on the democratic parenting variables than the low SES groups, and the spina bifida group scored higher on authoritarian parental control than the control group. Moreover, significant social class by group interactions revealed the low SES spina bifida group scored lower than the other three groups on measures of democratic parenting.

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Factors Related to Alcohol Preference and Consumption
Bobby K. Traffanstedt, Shelley Rohr, and Darla Sparks,
University of Central Arkansas


ABSTRACT: Sex, group size, and time of week (weekday night vs. weekend night) were assessed as potential factors in alcohol preference and consumption. Bars and lounges were used as the setting for observing alcohol preference and consumption in both men and women. Results showed no relationship between drink preference and time of week or between drink preference and group size. Although men were more likely to prefer beer as their alcoholic drink, there was no difference in rate of alcohol consumption between sexes. Results indicated no difference between groups and solitary individuals in rate of consumption, but consumption was greater on weekday nights than weekend nights

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Portrayal of Gender Roles in Music Television
Kevin F. McNeill and Luis A. Vega, California State University, Bakersfield

ABSTRACT: Students (N = 429; women = 273, men = 156) enrolled at a junior college and state university in central California were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions (visual only, audiovisual, audiovisual with discussion, and a no-videos-shown condition) and asked to view three videos commonly seen on Music Television (MTV). At the conclusion of each video, participants filled out a questionnaire designed to elicit their perception(s) of particular gender role behaviors, such as sexism, objectification, etc. Factor analysis revealed the presence of three factors: Male Power, Female Power, and Overt Sexuality. Further analysis showed that factor scores were not significantly different by condition. Although the format of MTV is attune to society’s concerns, it still presents gender role stereotypes that are traditional and subtle.

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Contrast Effects and Ratings of Physical Attractiveness
Julie M. Forth and Harvey R. Freeman, Ohio Wesleyan University

ABSTRACT: Ninety-seven participants (52 women, 45 men) were divided into two groups. Participants in the positive contrast condition were exposed to photographs of highly attractive men and women prior to rating photographs of target stimuli of average physical attractiveness. Participants in the negative contrast condition were exposed to photographs of unattractive men and women prior to rating photographs of target stimuli of average physical attractiveness. After rating the target stimuli, participants in both groups rated their own level of physical attractiveness. Participants in the positive contrast condition rated target stimuli of average attractiveness significantly lower in physical attractiveness than did participants in the negative contrast condition. The tendency for participants in the negative contrast condition to rate their own level of physical attractiveness higher than did participants in the positive contrast condition approached, but did not reach, significance. The tendency for female participants to rate the target stimuli higher in attractiveness than male participants was marginally significant. Results suggest the influence of the media on our conceptions of beauty.

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Processing of Identity and Conditional Relations in Humans: An Extension
of D'Amato, Salmon, Loukas, and Tomie (1986)

K. Eric Chan, Marian D. Perera, Jason C. Robinson, and Mark S. Schmidt,
The University of Georgia


ABSTRACT: In testing human participants’ processing of identity and nonidentity stimulus relations, identity matching (IM) trials and nonidentity, conditional matching (CM) trials served as practice. Test cycles consisted of IM probe trials introduced within CM baseline trials (CM/IM) and CM probe trials within IM baseline trials (IM/CM). Twenty-one participants responded to computer-generated stimuli using a keyboard. The results replicate and extend those of D’Amato, Salmon, Loukas, and Tomie (1986) to human participants. Differences in probe and baseline response times in the IM/CM and CM/IM test cycles support the conclusion that humans process IM and CM in different ways, as D’Amato et al. concluded for monkeys but not for pigeons.

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From Documentary to Sitcom: Turning Your Honors Thesis/Senior Project
Into a Journal Article

Diane Clark, Shippensburg University

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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