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Psi Chi Journal Fall 1998

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 3.3 | Fall 1998

RESEARCH ARTICLES

The Effects of Noise Volume on Performance of a Cognitive Task
Leslie Watson, Midwestern State University

ABSTRACT: The effects of 3 volume levels of continuous white noise on a cognitive task were investigated in a single-factor, multilevel design. Fifty-four undergraduates individually completed a math quiz containing 20 sixth-grade-level arithmetic problems while being exposed to no noise, medium-volume noise, or high-volume noise. No significant differences were noted in the time it took each noise group to complete the math problems. However, the medium-noise group made almost twice as many errors as the no-noise group and more errors than the high-noise group. Increases in noise volume did not cause respective increases in completion times or in number of errors made on the task as expected. There were no significant sex differences in performance.

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The Influence of Duration of Eye Contact on Evaluation of a Potential Employee
Laura P. Napieralski, Nicole L. Glassberg, and Charles I. Brooks, King's College

ABSTRACT: Male and female college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups and viewed a 60-s videotape. The content of the tape was derived from the factorial combination of sex of model in the tape and duration of eye contact (5 s, 30 s, or 50 s) maintained by the model with an interviewer. Participants viewed the tape, indicated whether or not they would hire the model, and answered other questions evaluating expected quality of job performance. The results showed as models’ duration of eye contact increased, participants indicated they would be more likely to hire the model; their expectations of the models’ quality of performance also increased with increased maintenance of eye contact. These results were the same for both the male and female models and male and female participants.

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Conflicting Self-Tendencies: The Role of Self-Esteem
and Self-Monitoring in Lying to Others

Ted Elam, Randall E. Osborne, and Joseph Norman,
Indiana University East


ABSTRACT: The effects of conflicting self-tendencies and reporting of self-related feedback were examined. One hundred forty-four participants were given a self-monitoring scale, a self-esteem measure, and a "perceptions scale." One hundred nineteen participants (30 scoring low on both self measures, 31 scoring high on both self measures, and 58 scoring high on one scale but low on the other) were selected to participate in a follow-up study. During the follow-up, participants were given random bogus feedback (told they scored either an 84 or 76) from the "perceptions" test. Each participant waited with presumably another participant (actually a confederate) who inquired about the participant’s performance. As predicted, participants scoring high or low on both of the self measures were significantly more likely to misreport their feedback score than those scoring high on one but low on the other. Discussion centers on the effect that such conflicting self-tendencies have on information processing and on behavioral choices.

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The Relationship Between Academic Major and Perception
of Psychology as a Science

Dana P. Jens and Myra D. Heinrich, Mesa State College

ABSTRACT: Friedrich (1996) designed the Psychology as Science (PAS) Scale to assess perception of psychology. This study is a modified replication of Friedrich’s (1996) research. Using the PAS Scale, differences in perception of psychology as a science among upper division psychology, counseling psychology, and biology majors were investigated. Results indicated psychology majors perceived psychology as being more scientific than did biology majors; however, no significant differences were found between other majors. The relationship of academic major (psychology, counseling psychology) and number of laboratory courses taken to PAS score was also investigated. Results indicated psychology majors perceived psychology more as a science than did counseling psychology majors. The main effect of laboratory course experience and the interaction were not significant. Although the study provided partial support for Friedrich's (1996) findings, the impact of laboratory experience needs further clarification.

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Developmental Trends in Object Recognition From Preschool to Adolescence:
A Preliminary Investigation

Jody Guyette, George Fox University

ABSTRACT: This experiment attempts to determine developmental trends in object recognition. Two object identification questionnaires were administered to 26 children between the ages of 4 and 10. One questionnaire included pictures fragmented arbitrarily, whereas the other included pictures fragmented according to recognition-by-components (RBC) theory (Biederman, 1987). Factors related to performance on the questionnaires were measured using the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (Brown, Sherbenou, & Johnson, 1990) and the Figure-Ground, Form Constancy, Closure, and Spatial Relations subtests of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP; Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993). There was a significant increase in the number of correctly identified objects with age for the arbitrarily fragmented objects, but not for the RBC objects. This findings suggests that the RBC objects contained sufficient information for identification across ages. In addition, different factors appear to influence recognition between the two types of objects. Arbitrarily fragmented objects are related to visual closure ability whereas RBC objects are related to the total of the four DTVP-2 subtests. These findings suggest that recognizing arbitrarily fragmented objects may be influenced by a specific perceptual ability but the RBC objects may be influenced by a number of related abilities.

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Self-Concept in Arabs and Arab Americans
Dalia R. Soliman and Francis T. McAndrew, Knox College

ABSTRACT: A group of Arab American students from traditional families scored significantly higher than a group of Arab students in Egypt on 7 of 10 subscales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS:2; Fitts & Warren, 1996), reflecting overall higher self-esteem, self-confidence, and satisfaction with one’s physical, moral, and academic self. The results are consistent with theories associating biculturalism with an enhanced self-concept and sense of well-being.

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The Effects of Bags and Apparel on Retailer's Response Time
Lisa Carlson, Ashley Dalton, Brittanie Glass, Marjorye Robinson, Michele Stackhouse, and Jennifer Bassman, Southern Methodist University

ABSTRACT: This experiment tested the presence of shopping bags and apparel on clothing store clerks’ response times. The time it took for the sales clerk to approach and offer services to the experimenter was timed and recorded after leaving the store. The results showed that sales clerks offered assistance more quickly when the experimenters carried four bags versus no bags and when they were dressed in business versus casual attire. These results imply that customers will receive quicker service from sales clerks if they are nicely dressed or are carrying bags.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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