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Psi Chi Journal Fall 1999

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 4.3 | Fall 1999

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Validating a Psychiatric Self-Report Screening Form for Homeless Medical Patients
Elizabeth T. Dexter and Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, The Florida State University

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the validity of a screening instrument to identify homeless medical patients in need of psychiatric services. A self-report screening instrument was developed and completed by 64 participants using the medical services offered at a free health clinic. We examined 2 approaches, a statistical deviation approach and a clinical judgment approach, in order to determine the criteria for specifying caseness. Caseness is defined as those participants in need of mental health evaluations. A criterion group composed of clinic medical patients presently using their mental health services was used as the standard to define caseness. Results showed the statistical deviation approach identified 100% of the criterion group, whereas the clinical judgment approach identified only 57% of the criterion group. Both approaches had similar false positive rates of 25%. Our findings support the validity of the client self-report measure as a screening tool to identify patients in need of mental health evaluations.

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The Effects of Music on Mood and Perception of a Visual Stimulus
Elizabeth J. Vella, Michael D. Irvin, Jason Solle, Scott Berendt, and Erin E. Ramirez, Sonoma State University

ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of music on mood by instructing 81 undergraduate students to complete the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R) both before and after watching a 15-min video that was or was not paired with a piece of music. The 2 music categories were pleasant or depressing. Participants from the depressing group experienced a drop in positive affect, whereas participants from the pleasant group showed an increase on this measure. Men from the pleasant group had the highest pretreatment and lowest posttreatment anxiety scores, whereas the women displayed no change in anxiety. The results indicate that music has only a slight impact on mood.

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Tennis Anyone? Personality Correlates of Singles and Doubles Playing Preferences
Lynne M. Schoenauer, Gregory S. Thomas, Bill Teigler, and Irwin P. Levin,
University of Iowa


ABSTRACT: The current research examines individual differences between people who prefer to perform a task alone and people who prefer to cooperate with a partner. The contributions of self-esteem, agreeableness, locus of control, and optimism were investigated in prediction of doubles or singles playing preference in recreational tennis players. Seventy recreational tennis players (aged 16-75) completed measures of singles/doubles playing preference, locus of control, optimism/pessimism, agreeableness, and self-esteem. Results of regression analysis show the strongest predictor of singles or doubles playing preference is optimism/pessimism. Players who prefer to play doubles were more agreeable and more optimistic than players who prefer to play singles.

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Type of Play, Temporal Position, Salience, and Attentional Focus
of Sports Spectators

Nathan L. Steele and Daniel L. Wann, Murray State University

ABSTRACT: The focus of attention affects the information available when making assessments of performance and when attributing responsibility for the outcome of an athletic play or contest. The current study tested the hypotheses that: (a) The type of play viewed would affect sport spectators' attentional focus, with certain plays leading to more internal focus, (b) the temporal position of the play would affect sport spectators' attentional focus, with earlier plays leading to more internal focus and later plays leading to more external focus, and (c) the effects of greater actor focus and a differential level of that actor focus as a function of type of play or temporal position seen in Wann and Steele's (1998) prior study would be replicated. These hypotheses were tested by having participants view 1 of 4 differently ordered series of 4 video clips depicting football plays. Participants then stated their focus of attention following each clip. The results supported each hypothesis.

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Observers' Evaluations of Couples Involved in Date Rape
Mathilde M. Tarsi and Norine L. Jalbert, Western Connecticut State University

ABSTRACT: Ninety volunteer men and women viewed photographs of low-, medium-, and high-attractive male and female couples and read a brief description of a date rape incident. Consistent with previous research, women rated the high-attractive woman as less responsible for the date rape than the low-attractive woman. Observers' evaluations of the couples did not confirm a linear relationship between victim attractiveness and responsibility attributions, and they held the medium-attractive woman most responsible. The results are discussed in terms of just world theory, gender bias, attractiveness bias, and similarity to the target.

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A Conversation With Wilbert J. McKeachie: Involving Undergraduate
Students in Research

Richard L. Miller, University of Nebraska; Mark E. Ware, Creighton University

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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