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Psi Chi Journal Summer 2000

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 5.2 | Summer 2000

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Informed Consent: A Methodological Confound?
Edward Burkley III, Shawn McFarland, Wendy Walker, and Jennifer Young,
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville


ABSTRACT: The current research investigated the statement of the right to leave at any time, expressed in the informed consent form, and its effects on performance. We gave 1 of 2 types of informed consent forms (with or without the specific statement concerning the right to leave at any time) to each research participant. A list of 22 anagrams was used to assess performance. The results indicated that participants who knew they had the right to leave scored significantly higher than participants who were not aware of this right. This finding indicates that informed consent has an effect on performance and can be a possible methodological confound in research.

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Occupational Stress as a Function of Type of Organization and Sex of Employee
Carolyn Ann Licht, Marymount Manhattan College

ABSTRACT: Previous studies show inconsistencies in the relation between sex and occupational stress. Most researchers have limited their focus to the intraorganizational structure, whereas this study explored the effect of type of organization and sex of employee on occupational stress. The researcher compared data (15 men, 25 women) from the nonprofit New York City Department of Administrative Services to archival data (12 men, 23 women; Cioffi, 1997) from a for-profit New York City pharmaceutical company. The Job Stress Survey (JSS; Spielberger, 1994), a self-report instrument, was used to measure the severity and frequency of occupational stress. As predicted, results indicated that employees perceive more occupational stress in nonprofit than in for-profit organizations. However, contrary to predictions, results indicated that there are sex differences in perceived occupational stress: Men report more stress than women in most situations.

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The Relation Between Job Satisfaction and Personality Similarity
in Supervisors and Subordinates

Leann D. Rhodes and Elizabeth Yost Hammer, Belmont University

ABSTRACT: Organizational behavior has become an extensively researched area of psychology (e.g., Bauer & Green, 1996; Day & Bedeian, 1995; Jain, Lall, McLaughlin, & Johnson, 1996), and research shows that personality plays a large part in the underlying components of behavior in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine whether personality similarity also plays a role in organizational behavior. The present study examined the variables of locus of control and agreeableness similarity between supervisors and subordinates and the relation of these variables to job satisfaction. A total of 37 participants from the administrative staff of a southeastern private university completed questionnaires measuring agreeableness, work locus of control, and job satisfaction. Personality similarity scores were obtained from supervisors' and subordinates' individual scores. Results support the hypothesis that supervisors and subordinates with a high level of agreeableness similarity have an increased level of job satisfaction. However, we found no relation between similarity of work locus of control and job satisfaction. Implications for the workplace, as well as future research, are discussed.

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The Relation Between Positive and Negative Alcohol Expectancies
and Alcohol Use in College Students

Jackie Bruderick and Donald Ernst, Hillsdale College

ABSTRACT: Positive and negative alcohol expectancies, as measured by the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol questionnaire (CEOA; Fromme, Stroot, & Kaplan, 1993), were observed among alcohol drinkers and abstainers in a sample of 47 college students. We divided the sample into 5 levels of drinking: abstainers who had no intention of ever drinking (permanent abstainers), abstainers who presently do not drink but postulate that they will consume alcohol in the future (temporary abstainers), light drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. As hypothesized, temporary abstainers and light drinkers possessed significantly lower positive expectancies than did heavy drinkers. Temporary and permanent abstainers possessed significantly higher negative expectancies than did moderate and heavy drinkers, which we hypothesized for permanent abstainers but not for temporary abstainers.

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Effects of Recall Requirements on Strategy Selection in a Visual-Spatial Span Task
Paula R. Selvidge, Wichita State University

ABSTRACT: The visual-spatial component of working memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) was explored in this experiment. The purpose was to investigate the strategies utilized in recalling item locations by varying the type of recall (free/serial/probe) in a visual-spatial span task. Twenty students at a midwestern university participated in the experiment. It was hypothesized that scores would be greater in the free-recall condition than in the serial-recall condition, and the type of recall task would drive strategy selection. Analysis of variance supported the prediction that scores in the spatial location tasks were affected by the type of recall condition. The presence of recency effects and self-reported strategy selection were examined to investigate the types of strategies used in the spatial location tasks.

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Documenting Passive Cheating in College Students
Lesley M. Condon, Joselyn M. Hummel, Melody A. Cox, Brandi J. Calahan,
and Stephen F. Davis, Emporia State University;
Carolyn R. Schmidt, Kansas Wesleyan University


ABSTRACT: This experiment examined passive cheating in male and female college students. Thirty-two student volunteers participated. Before they completed a test of riddles, the experimental group overheard a male and a female confederate discussing the answers to the test. Participants in the control group did not overhear the discussion. Participants in the experimental group had significantly more answers that corresponded to the confederates' discussion. Passive cheating exists and is equally likely to be engaged in by college men and women.

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The Effects of Salary on Willingness to Date
Kim J. Driggers and Tasha Helms, Oklahoma State University

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present experiment was to test the role of salary in date selection by men and women. Male and female college students (N = 150) viewed pictures of the opposite sex and rated the target's attractiveness and their own willingness to date the target. Varied among 3 conditions was the level of salary (i.e., $20,000, $60,000, and $100,000) listed. Statistical analyses yielded support for the hypothesis that as the target's salary increased, a participant's willingness to date the target would also increase. That is, as salary increased, both men's and women's willingness to date a target increased. We also found a significant main effect for the sex of participants; as salary increased, women's willingness to date a person increased significantly more than men's willingness.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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