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Psi Chi Journal Summer 2001

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 6.2 | Summer 2001

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Subjective Well-Being: Are You Busy Enough to be Happy?
Amie R. McKibban and Shawn Nelson, Emporia State University

ABSTRACT: This study attempted to determine if a relation exists between happiness and certain lifestyle habits (i.e., life structure) and personality traits (i.e., Type A achievement striving personality). We predicted there would be a positive correlation between (a) happiness and life structure, and (b) happiness and the achievement striving subset of the Type A personality scale. Eighty-six undergraduate student volunteers completed a battery of surveys. The achievement striving subset of the Type A personality scale and 3 measures of happiness were positively correlated. Life structure and positive affect also were positively correlated. These results suggest that achievement striving persons who perceive their life as structured report greater levels of happiness, or subjective well-being.

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Disability and Society: Appearance Stigma Results in
Discrimination Toward Deaf Persons

Kristen S. McClellan and Edie B. Woods, Madonna University

ABSTRACT: This experiment tested whether deaf consumers experience a longer wait for service in retail establishments than their hearing counterparts. Pairs of confederates, either deaf persons conversing in sign language or hearing persons using spoken English, entered randomly selected retail stores. Confederates clocked the time it took for a sales clerk to approach and offer service. The results indicated that sales clerks offered assistance significantly more quickly to hearing consumers. This result suggests that the ability to hear is a significant factor in determining the length of wait for service. We offer suggestions for studying discrimination in restaurants, department stores, and employment settings and for educating retailers about appropriate ways to serve disabled consumers.

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The Effects of Noise and Sex on Children's Performance
on Recall and Spatial Tasks

Michael D. Jones, Lincoln Memorial University

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of noise and sex as factors influencing children's ability to perform recall and spatial tasks. The study consisted of 60 fifth- and sixth-grade students tested using the digit recall and block design subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R; Wechsler, 1974). The researcher randomly assigned boys and girls to 3 groups: an unstructured white noise group, a music group, and a silent control group. Children in each group completed the same WISC-R subtests. Children in the 2 experimental groups worked while exposed to unstructured white noise or music at 70 dB. The results of the study indicated no significant difference between boys and girls in performance on recall and spatial tasks in the presence of unstructured white noise or music. The present study did find significance between experimental conditions as children in the unstructured white noise group performed significantly better than children in the music group. However, neither experimental group performed significantly better than the control group. This study indicated that exposure to unstructured white noise increases children's recall and spatial performance by improving concentration and organization ability.

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Developmental Changes in Children's Measurement Errors
Kimberly M. Kiker, University of Florida

ABSTRACT: Children as old as 4th graders still make fundamental measurement errors. Specifically, some children begin measuring from the number 1 on a ruler instead of from the end of the ruler (0), an error of cardinality. The present study investigated developmental changes in children's measurement errors in 1st and 3rd graders via a 6-task testing session devised to emphasize measurement errors children tend to make. Each task made the cardinality error (measuring from 1 instead of 0) increasingly more salient to the children in an effort to facilitate recognition of their measurement errors. However, the results revealed that children do not understand the measurement principle of cardinality, and thus tend to be stable in their measurement strategies despite evidence indicating that such strategies yield incorrect answers.

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Psychological Variables in Relation to Academic Success
in Developmental Math Courses

Diana Spatz, Missouri Western State College

ABSTRACT: This study examined psychological predictors of academic achievement for students enrolled in self-paced math courses. At the beginning of the fall 1998 semester, 250 students who were enrolled in developmental math courses at Missouri Western State College completed a questionnaire packet with standardized measures of procrastination, optimism, self-esteem, anxiety, locus of control, need for achievement, and fear of success. At the end of the term, academic performance and time of unit completion in the self-paced courses were correlated with the psychological factors. Regression analysis indicated those students with high levels of achievement motivation, low math anxiety, and low procrastination scores were most likely to complete the class with a passing grade.

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Commuters' Subjective Perceptions of Travel Impedance and Their Stress Levels
Amanda D. Gray and Jennifer L. Lucas, Agnes Scott College

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this project was to investigate automobile commuters' subjective perceptions of travel impedance and their driver stress. The distance and time of the commute in relation to driver stress were also assessed. Commuters with high driver stress reported higher subjective perceptions of travel impedance, but the commuters with longer distance and time commutes did not report greater driver stress. The findings indicate that one of the key factors in determining a commuter's stress level is the perception of impedance rather than whether physical impedance actually occurred. These findings suggest that persons with short distance and time commutes also feel driver stress and that a commuter does not have to have a long-distance or time-consuming commute to experience driver stress.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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