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Psi Chi Journal Winter 2001

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 6.4 | Winter 2001

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Implicit Indicators of Women's Persistence in Math, Science, and Engineering
Lora E. Park, Kathleen E. Cook, and Anthony G. Greenwald, University of Washington

ABSTRACT: The disproportionate dropout rate of female college students from math, science, and engineering (MSE) fields has recently received much attention (Brainard, Laurich-McIntyre, & Mobley, 1995; Carlin, 1997). The reasons for women's higher attrition rate from MSE fields remain unclear. Eighty 1st-year university students with a preexisting interest in MSE completed a computer task—the Implicit Association Test (IAT)—that measured identification with MSE, gender stereotypes regarding MSE, and attitudes toward MSE on an implicit, nonconscious level. Results indicated that women showed less implicit identification with MSE than did men, and that men showed stronger implicit stereotypes about MSE being "male" fields. Surprisingly, although men and women held negative implicit attitudes toward MSE, they did not differ significantly from each other in their implicit MSE attitudes. These results may have implications for better understanding women's persistence in MSE.

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The Effects of Societal Standards of Physical Attractiveness
on Body Esteem in the Elderly

Nicole H. Wolensky, Marquette University

ABSTRACT: The current societal standard of attractiveness is one that emphasizes youthfulness. The study sought to observe the impact these standards have on the elderly. Participants consisted of 14 women and 6 men aged 62 through 90 (M = 77.35, SD = 7.82). The control group viewed a photograph of an elderly couple, whereas the youthful standard of attractiveness was made salient to the remaining participants through a photograph of a young couple. The researcher administered the Body Esteem Scale (Franzoi & Shields, 1984), producing scores on the body-as-object subscale and the body-as-process subscale. Scores were compared on the basis of sex, condition, and exercise/nonexercise. No significant difference was found between conditions or sexes. Exercisers scored significantly higher than nonexercisers on the body-as-process subscale, t(17) = - 3.32, p = .008.

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The Bold and the Beautiful: The Effect of Physical Attractiveness
and Extraversion on Desirability

Katie D. Kirkendall, Deann P. Dixon, Traci A. Giuliano, and Ann E. Raney, Southwestern University

ABSTRACT: This study explored the effects of extraversion and physical attractiveness on the desirability of a potential dating partner. Thirty-two male college students, recruited for a study ostensibly about perceptions of dating service clients, read several profiles and made judgments about them. We manipulated physical attractiveness of the client (attractive or unattractive) between subjects and manipulated level of extraversion (shy or outgoing) within subjects. Each participant read and made judgments about 2 distracter profiles and 2 profiles relevant to the hypotheses. Participants rated physically attractive women as more desirable and were more interested in dating them compared to unattractive women, regardless of level of extraversion, even though they rated extraverted women as friendlier than shy women. These results are consistent with research suggesting that physical attractiveness, rather than personality, is the most potent factor in determining desirability (Dion, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972).

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Aggressive Personality Type and Its Link to Aggressive Driving
Christen G. Herrick, Whitworth College

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relation between overall aggressive personality type (APT) and aggressive driving behaviors (ADB), as well as the effects of driver anonymity (defined by driving alone vs. driving with a passenger[s]) on ADB scores. Forty undergraduate college students (17 men, 23 women) with a mean age of 19.73 years completed the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and an aggressive driving questionnaire composed by the researcher. The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between APT and ADB for both the driving alone, r = .440, p < .01, and driving with passenger(s), r = .456, p < .01, conditions. There was also a significant difference in driver aggression scores for drivers alone versus drivers with a passenger(s). These results suggest a need for driver training programs to implement anger/hostility management components.

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Eminem Versus Charley Pride: Race, Stereotypes, and Perceptions
of Rap and Country Music Performers

Allison J. Dickson, Traci A. Giuliano, James C. Morris, and Keri L. Cass, Southwestern University

ABSTRACT: The present study explored the effects of stereotype deviation in the music industry on people's perceptions of performers. One hundred college students (48 men, 52 women) examined a profile of a fictitious performer containing a picture, a brief biography, and a lyric sample. As part of a 2-way between-subjects design, participants made judgments about either a Black or a White musician who performed either rap or country music. The results showed that a Black rap performer was rated more favorably than a Black country performer, and a White country performer was rated more favorably than a White rap performer. Consistent with predictions, people who violate societal expectations are judged more harshly than are people who conform to societal expectations, particularly in cases involving strong preexisting racial stereotypes.

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Statistical Rules of Thumb: What We Don't Want to Forget About Sample Sizes
Carmen Wilson VanVoorhis and Betsy Levonian Morgan,
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse


ABSTRACT: In this article we highlight the statistical rules of thumb guiding the selection of sample sizes for detecting differences, associations, chi-square, and factor analyses.

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A Modified Presubmission Checklist
Jennifer Dunn and Karen Ford, Mesa State University; Kirsten l. Rewey,
University of Minnesota; John A. Juve, University of Missouri-Columbia;
Alyson Weiser and Stephen F. Davis, Emporia State University


ABSTRACT: The following checklist was adapted from the article "'Is This REALLY APA Format?': A Presubmission Checklist for the Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research," which appeared in the Fall 2000 issue (Vol. 5, pp. 87-89) of this journal. We hope that this updated version, which incorporates changes found in the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001), will assist authors, faculty advisors, and reviewers with the APA format aspect of the publication process.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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