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Psi Chi Journal Winter 2007

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 12.4 | Winter 2007

RESEARCH ARTICLES

The Effects of Procrastination and Self-Awareness on Emotional Responses
Lauren Nicholson and Lauren F. V. Scharff, Stephen F. Austin State University

ABSTRACT: This experiment studied how emotions were affected by procrastination and selfawareness. Sixty undergraduate students were classified by procrastination type and tested in either a high (mirror present), or low (no mirror present) self-awareness condition. During the experiment the participants were exposed to frustration inducing situations and afterwards given a questionnaire to assess their emotions. There were no effects on reported positive emotions. Chronic procrastinators in the high self-awareness condition reported more negative emotions; while less chronic procrastinators in the high self-awareness condition reported the least amount of negative emotion. For the low self-awareness condition, results showed no significant impact of procrastination type. These results suggest that people could use personal manipulation of self-awareness to moderate their experience of negative emotions.

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Possible Cause of Eating Disorders Among Women: Theory of Competition
for Mates and Status

Laura Austin, Creighton University

ABSTRACT: The present study examined female intrasexual competition (ISC) in relation to perceptions of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in women. It was hypothesized that ISC for mates would be more prevalent in women displaying greater bulimic thoughts and behaviors, and that ISC for status would be more prevalent in women displaying greater anorexic thoughts and behaviors. Participants included 90 women between the ages of 18–22. The results indicated that ISC for mates was a main motivating factor in bulimic thoughts; however, ISC for status was not found to be a main motivating factor in anorexic thoughts. Self-esteem was also found to be a major contributing factor in the perception of eating disorders.

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Comparing Academic Motivation and Accomplishments Among Traditional, Nontraditional, and Distance Education College Students
Shelly Bennett, Tracy Evans, and Joan Riedle, University of Wisconsin-Platteville

ABSTRACT: Relationships among self-concept, stress, goal orientation (learning or performance) and grade point average (GPA) among traditional, nontraditional, and distance education students were examined. Seventy-two traditional, 40 nontraditional, and 19 distance education students completed a demographic questionnaire, the Goals Inventory (Roedel, Schraw, & Plake, 1994), the Student Life Stress Inventory (Gadzella, 1991), and the Index of Adjustment and Values (Bills, Vance, & McLean, 1951). Results showed that distance education and nontraditional students were more learning-goal oriented and less performance-goal oriented than traditional students. Learning-goal oriented students had higher GPA’s than performance-goal oriented students and distance education students had higher GPA’s than nontraditional and traditional students. Significant relationships were found with other variables including stress, self-concept, sex, number of credits, hours employed, and hours spent studying.

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Individual Differences in Voluntary Self-Administration of Oral Nicotine
in Female Rats

Kimberley B. Boyett, Amy R. Pearcem, and Kris D. Biondolillo, Arkansas State University

ABSTRACT: Eight adult female Sprague Dawley rats had free access to both a nicotine solution and distilled water. At no time were rats deprived of food, water, or forcefully exposed to nicotine. Individual consumption patterns emerged with some animals drinking little nicotine solution and others preferring it over water. Results suggest that providing a nicotine solution of 1μg/ml nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (SigmaAldrich) continuously in the home cage is sufficient to establish voluntary self-administration of nicotine in some rats. Further, this method of nicotine self-administration is promising and yields the kind of individual nicotine intake patterns seen in human tobacco users.

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Detecting Lies Told by Friends and Strangers
Leah B. Fischer and Shelia M. Kennison, Oklahoma State University

ABSTRACT: The research investigated the hypothesis that having a personal relationship with someone improves one’s ability to detect lies in verbal statements. In Study 1, we found that people reported higher levels of confidence in their ability to detect lies told by someone close to them versus a stranger. In Study 2, we conducted a lie detection experiment with additional participants. The results indicated that having a personal relationship with the storyteller did not lead to significantly higher accuracy. However, additional analyses showed that accuracy was significantly predicted by how often the storyteller reported lying in everyday life and the amount of time the storyteller and story judge spent together each week. The results are consistent with the view that behavioral cues are produced during lying, and success in lie detection can occur when one becomes skilled at perceiving those cues; however, individuals can vary in their skill level.

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The Effects of Grade and Sharing Cost on Children’s Perceptions of Sharing
Diane M.
Lickenbrock and Janet Kuebli, Saint Louis University

ABSTRACT: This study examined first (n = 30) and fourth graders’ (n = 30) perceptions about sharing. All children heard a vignette in which their friends shared. Half of the children heard a vignette in which sharing posed a high cost (HC), and the remainder heard one in which their friend had a low cost (LC). Afterward, children answered questions regarding sharing motives and their feelings. Children then heard a vignette in which they shared and answered similar questions. Lastly, they made a moral judgment about a nonsharing friends. Results showed that fourth graders perceived sharing as harder for their friends than did first graders. Additionally, children who heard the HC vignette reported it was less okay for their friends not to share than children who heard the LC vignette.

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Self-Monitoring and Conformity: A Comparison of Self-Report
and Behavioral Measures

Nicole Scher, Tonya Thompson, and Betsy L. Morgan,
University of Wisconsin—La Crosse


ABSTRACT: This study investigated the role of self-monitoring in relation to self-reported and behavioral conformity. Ninety-three female undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course were administered a questionnaire packet consisting of the Lennox and Wolfe Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (RSMS), a self-reported measure of conformity, and a series of vignettes, both designed by the authors. A tertiary split based on the RSMS was performed to yield groups of high and low selfmonitors, resulting in 31 participants (13 high and 18 low self-monitors) for a behavioral measure of conformity. For the behavioral measure, which took place approximately 6 weeks after the initial questionnaire, each participant and 3 confederates were given 6 decision-making vignettes, 3 of which were included in the initial questionnaire. The confederates answered uniformly on the previously seen vignettes, opposite of what the participant had originally answered. Confederates split their answers on the "new” vignettes in order to disguise the purpose of the study. The behavioral conformity score was determined by the number of times the participant answered uniformly with the confederates despite their original answers. Findings suggest that high self-monitors were more likely to conform than were low self- monitors in behavioral conformity situation. No significant relationship exists between self-monitoring and self-reported conformity. Additional studies should be conducted using larger, gender balanced, and more ethnically diverse samples.

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Aggressive Behavior in Conflict Tactics and Sexual Experiences in Relationships
Kirstin Noe, Cal Stoffel, and Debra Oswald, Marquette University

ABSTRACT: Aggressive behavior within relationships has been a topic of much discussion and research in past decades. Research has found that a rise of conflict within relationships mirrors an increase of physically and verbally aggressive methods of conflict resolution. Also, once aggression enters a relationship, it is likely to escalate as the couple becomes more serious and committed. In studying college-aged heterosexual relationships at a variety of commitment levels, we hypothesized that men, typically stereotyped as more dominant and aggressive, engage in more physical aggression. In contrast, women were hypothesized to engage in more verbal aggression. However, results found the contrary. In this study, women were found to use more physical aggression than men. Also, it was found that couples involved in more committed relationships are more likely to use both physical and verbal aggression.

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Visual Dominance of Touch and the Somatosensory Homunculus:
Does the Amount of Cortical Space Matter?

E. K. Reese, California State University, Stanislaus

ABSTRACT: The present study was an experimental investigation of whether visual dominance may be moderated by cortical representation on the somatosensory cortex. Forty-five university students were tested using the Arachnimech SR-1 prototype, which delivered congruent and incongruent visual and tactile stimuli to the participants’ index and little fingers (as the index finger has significantly greater cortical representation than the little finger). Response times and accuracy were measured. Response times were significantly shorter for the index finger than the little finger in both congruent and incongruent situations. Responses were significantly more accurate overall for congruent stimuli than for incongruent stimuli, but there was no significant difference in accuracy between the index finger and little finger.

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Relationships Between Self-Esteem and Factors Known to Affect
College Attendance

Adam Torres, Christy Zenner, Daina Benson, Sarah Harris, and Tim Koberlein,
Boise State University


ABSTRACT: There are many factors impacting student’s decisions to attend college. Researchers investigated self-esteem, perceived academic abilities, and intended college attendance in a group of high school seniors involved in a program aimed at assisting them to get into college. Participants were 83 senior high school students (men = 28, women = 55) from various high schools in Idaho. Many students come from low socioeconomic backgrounds and were White (White = 40, Latino = 28, Asian = 6, African American = 2, and other = 6). Participants were asked 39 questions concerning intended college attendance, self-esteem, perceived academic abilities, and other factors that influenced their decision to attend college. Significant correlations were found between self-esteem and perceived academic abilities.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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