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Psi Chi Journal Summer 2013

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 18.2 | Summer 2013

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Development of Child Attachment in Relation to Parental Empathy and Age
Katelyn R. Black and Jennifer P. Leszczynski, Eastern Connecticut State University


ABSTRACT:
The current study examined parental empathy in relation to perceived child-parent attachment as well as parental age. It was hypothesized that younger parents (between the ages of 18 to 24) would express lower child-directed empathy and, therefore, would report that their children were less attached to them than children whose parents report higher levels of child-directed empathy. Parents completed three online questionnaires: the Kinship Center Attachment Questionnaire, the Basic Empathy Scale, and the Parenting Empathy Questionnaire. Significant positive relationships were found between parental age and parental empathy, r(120) = .23, p = .014. Both parental empathy and basic empathy were found to significantly relate to parental attachment, r(120) = .19, p = .020 and r(120) = .28, p =.002 respectively. There was no relationship between parental age and attachment. The discussion portion of the paper offers hypotheses for why this occurred and directions for future research on parental age, empathy, and attachment.

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Facial Expression: The Ability to Distinguish Between Enjoyment
and Nonenjoyment Smiles

Spencer A. Coffman, Minnesota State University Moorhead

ABSTRACT:
The smile is a universally recognized facial expression generally associated with happiness. However, this may not always be the case and discerning the difference is surprisingly difficult. Enjoyment smiles involve the involuntary contraction of the orbicularis oculi, which lifts the cheeks and narrows the eyes, and the zygomaticus major, which raises the lip corners. Nonenjoyment smiles only use the zygomaticus major (Frank & Ekman, 1993). In the current study, participants watched Facial Action Coding System (FACS) coded videos of smiles and were asked whether they believed the smiles were real or fake. Tobii X120 eye-tracking software was used to determine the most focused upon facial muscle when interpreting the smiles. It was estimated that the majority of participants would perform at a level slightly above chance, achieve an average of 60% accuracy, and pay most attention to the zygomaticus major (Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Frank, Ekman & Friesen, 1993). Results indicated that the majority of the participants performed significantly above chance, with an average 65% accuracy, and focused on the orbicularis oculi. These findings suggest that the ability to detect smiles is increasing and people tend to look at the eyes rather than the mouth during a smile.

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Connecting Gender and Mental Health to Imposter Phenomenon Feelings
Claire E. Cusack, Jennifer L. Hughes, and Nadi Nuhu, Agnes Scott College

ABSTRACT:
The impostor phenomenon (IP) occurs when high-achieving individuals attribute their successes to external factors and are unable to internalize success (Clance & Imes, 1978). Previous data show correlations between this phenomenon with gender and psychological disorders (Oriel, Plane, & Mundt, 2004). This study expanded on prior research in determining whether gender, mental health, perfectionism, test anxiety, and low self-esteem are significantly related to IP feelings. The sample was composed of 506 participants. Women were significantly more likely to report impostor beliefs than men, t(504) = 3.44, p < .001. Mental health, r(500) = -.48, p < .001, perfectionism, r(506) = .48, p < .001, and test anxiety,r(504) = .50, p < .001, were significantly related to impostor beliefs, whereas low self-esteem was not related to the IP, r(500) = -.47, p = .09. Research on this topic is important because the impostor phenomenon is pervasive in academic and numerous professional environments.

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The Influence of Perceived Familial Emotional Support in Childhood
on Adult Health-Related Behaviors

Adriana Maldonado and Allison A. Vaughn, San Diego State University

ABSTRACT:
The current study aimed to examine the role of self-efficacy, perceived familial emotional support in childhood, and culture (e.g., collectivism) in predicting health-related behaviors (preventing, promoting, and harming) of college students. A total of 297 (228 women) undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing their health-related behaviors, self-efficacy, perceived familial emotional support, and culture. Regression analyses were used to test multiple hypotheses—most of which were supported. Self-efficacy was related to health-related behaviors (all ps < .05). Perceived familial emotional support was related to higher self-efficacy, which was predictive of health-related behaviors above and beyond perceived familial emotional support (all ps < .05). Collectivism was related to higher levels of perceived familial emotional support, which was predictive of health-related behaviors above and beyond collectivism (all ps < .05). A theoretical model is proposed which suggests that collectivism serves as the context to perceive high levels of familial emotional support during childhood, which helps build a strong sense of self-efficacy leading individuals to engage in healthier behaviors.

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Influence of Taste Quality on Affective State
Alexander B. Swan, Avichg Cohen, Samantha R. Evans, and Barbara A. Drescher,
California State University, Northridge


ABSTRACT:
Much of the research exploring the relationship between taste quality and affective state suggests that sweet-tasting foods are associated with pleasant feelings, and sour- and spicy-tasting foods are associated with unpleasant feelings. The findings of arousal response as a component of overall affective state are less clear with respect to taste quality. The present study investigated the relationship between taste quality and affective state by comparing arousal and pleasantness ratings of neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Participants (N = 55) recorded these ratings during consumption of sprays which varied in taste quality (sweet, sour, or spicy). As hypothesized, sweet sprays elicited significantly higher ratings of pleasantness than sour or spicy sprays (η2p= .14) on the neutral images. However, arousal ratings did not differ among the three taste quality conditions. Implications of the findings in a broader framework and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

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