Numerous authors offer advice to undergraduate psychology majors about what they should do
to gain admission to graduate programs. However, few authors advise students about what they should not do
when applying to graduate school and, when they do, few support their advice with data. We surveyed the chairs of graduate school admissions committees in psychology about the contents of graduate school applications that decreased
chances for acceptance (i.e., kisses of death or KODs). A qualitative analysis of these surveys yielded the following six categories of KODs. Although the KODs identified in this study reflect unwise choices on the part of applicants, we believe many of them resulted more from a lack of appropriate advising and mentoring than from a lack of applicants' intelligence. Unless undergraduate psychology programs provide appropriate advising and mentoring concerning graduate school culture and the requirements of the graduate school application process, their majors are likely to commit these KODs. For example, an unmentored psychology major may interpret a personal statement at face value by perceiving it as an opportunity to share personal (i.e., private) information with the members of a graduate admissions committee. Unless applicants know that a personal statement should address issues such as research interests and perceived fit with a program, they may misinterpret its purpose and write personal statements that inadvertently doom their applications. Similarly, an unmentored student may interpret a letter of recommendation as a request for information from a person who knows her/him well and can vouch for her/his admirable traits and strong values (e.g., a family member or a member of the clergy). The purpose of our study was to remedy these unfortunate situations by providing undergraduate psychology majors with advice that will enable them to avoid the KODs in the graduate school application process.
A full-text copy of the article whose results are summarized in this document (see its reference below) can be accessed at: www.leaonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1207/s15328023top3301_5
Letters of Recommendation
- Avoid references to your mental health. Such statements could create the impression you may be unable to function as a successful graduate student.
- Avoid excessively altruistic statements (e.g., "I just want to help people."). Graduate faculty could interpret these statements to mean you believe a strong need to help others is more important to your success in graduate school than a desire to perform research and engage in other academic and professional activities.
- Avoid providing excessively self-revealing information. Faculty may interpret such information as a sign you are unaware of the value of interpersonal or professional boundaries in sensitive areas.
- Avoid inappropriate humor, attempts to appear cute or clever, and references to God or religious issues when these issues are unrelated to the program to which you are applying. Admissions committee members may interpret this type of information to mean you lack awareness of the formal nature of the application process or the culture of graduate school.
Lack of Information About the Program to Which You Are Applying
- Avoid letters of recommendation from people who do not know you well, whose portrayals of your characteristics may not be objective (e.g., a relative), or who are unable to base their descriptions in an academic context (e.g., your minister). Letters from these authors can give the impression you are unable or unwilling to solicit letters from individuals whose depictions are accurate, objective, or professionally relevant.
- Avoid letter of recommendation authors who will provide unflattering descriptions of your personal or academic characteristics. These descriptions provide a clear warning that you are not suited for graduate study. Choose your letter of recommendation authors carefully. Do not simply ask potential authors if they are willing to write you a letter of recommendation; ask them if they are able to write you a strong letter of recommendation. This question will allow them to decline your request diplomatically if they believe their letter may be more harmful than helpful.
Poor Writing Skills
- Avoid statements that reflect a generic approach to the application process or an unfamiliarity with the program to which you are applying. These statements signal you have not made an honest effort to learn about the program from which you are saying you want to earn your graduate degree.
- Avoid statements that indicate you and the target program are a perfect fit if these statements are not corroborated with specific evidence that supports your assertion (e.g., your research interests are similar to those of the program's faculty). Graduate faculty can interpret a lack of this evidence as a sign that you and the program to which you are applying are not a good match.
Misfired Attempts to Impress
- Avoid spelling or grammatical errors in your application. These errors are an unmistakable warning of substandard writing skills, a refusal to proofread your work, or your willingness to submit careless written work.
- Avoid writing in an unclear, disorganized, or unconvincing manner that does not provide your readers with a coherent picture of your research, educational, and professional goals. A crucial part of your graduate training will be writing; do not communicate your inability to write to those you hope will be evaluating your writing in the future.
- Avoid attempts to impress the members of a graduate admissions committee with information they may interpret as insincere flattery (e.g., referring to the target program in an excessively complimentary manner) or inappropriate (e.g., namedropping or blaming others for poor academic performance). Graduate admissions committees are composed of intelligent people; do not use your application as an opportunity to insult their intelligence.
Appleby, D. C., & Appleby, K. M. (2006). Kisses of death in the graduate school application process. Teaching of Psychology, 33
(6), 19-24.Drew C. Appleby, PhD,
received his BA in psychology from Simpson College (IA) in 1969 and his PhD in experimental psychology from Iowa State University in 1972. He currently serves as director of undergraduate studies at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. His most recently published book is The Savvy Psychology Major
(2003, Kendall/Hunt). Dr. Appleby is a fellow of both Division 1 (General Psychology) and Division 2 (Teaching of Psychology) of APA. He received Division 2's Outstanding Psychology Teacher Award in a Four-Year College or University in 1993, the Marian College Teaching Excellence Award in 1993, the IUPUI Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2003, and was chosen by APA to present its G. Stanley Hall Teaching Lecture in 1998. He was recognized for his advising skills by the National Academic Advising Association when he received the Outstanding Adviser Award of its Great Lakes Region in 1988 and for his mentoring skills by being the recipient of IUPUI's Psi Chi Mentor of the Year Award in 2000. He created Division 2's Project Syllabus and currently serves as the director of Division 2's Mentoring Service.Karen Appleby, PhD,
received her BA in English from Hanover College (ID) in 1998. After graduating from Hanover, she attended the University of Tennessee at Knoxville where she earned her master's degree in sport management (1999) and sport psychology (2000), and her PhD in sport psychology (2004). Currently, she is an assistant professor in the Sport Science and Physical Education Department at Idaho State University. Presently, she is conducting and has published research in the areas of mentoring in higher education, women's experiences in sport, and life quality issues in the master's athlete population. She is currently a reviewer for the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance
(JOPERD), and the Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education
(EJITE) and is also the cohead of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology's (AAASP) Diversity Committee. She serves as a sport psychology consultant for several athletic teams at Idaho State University as well as other sport clubs in the community of Pocatello, ID. In her spare time, she loves to run with her husband and dogs in the Idaho mountains and also races her road bike.
Spring 2007 issue of Eye on Psi Chi (Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 20-21), published by Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology (Chattanooga, TN). Copyright, 2007, Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology. All rights reserved.