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Contextual Variations of Mindfulness Across Interpersonal and Task-Oriented Contexts: The Roles of Gender and Ethnicity
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by Jeremy Luk, Gareth Holman and Robert Kohlenberg, faculty supervisor - University of Washington
Mindfulness, defined as nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment, is often measured as a trait that remains stable across contexts. This study used self-report questionnaires to evaluate potential variations of mindfulness across unspecified, interpersonal and task-oriented contexts among 204 undergraduate students. A within-subject ANOVA showed significant context by gender interaction (p=.01). Differences in mindfulness across contexts were significant among females only (p<.001). Across all contexts, Caucasians reported higher mindfulness scores than Asians (p<.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that relationships between mindfulness and other psychological constructs such as attachment style and mood vary across contexts. Preliminary results suggest the existence of distinct context-specific mindfulness constructs. Findings are discussed in terms of gender role theory and potential cultural biases in mindfulness measures.