The First Affiliate of the American Psychological Association
Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology:
The First Affiliate of the American Psychological Association
John D. Hogan and Virginia S. Sexton
St. John’s University
[The following history of Psi Chi appeared as a chapter in the book No Small Part: A History of Regional Organizations in American Psychology (J. L. Pate and M. Wertheimer, editors, pp. 189-205), published by the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 1993. It was reprinted in 2000 as an introduction to An Oral History of Psi Chi (S. F. Davis and M. Wertheimer, pp. 1-9) along with several rare photographs from the Psi Chi archives.]
Psi Chi is the oldest surviving student organization in psychology. Moreover, it has a size, scope, and heritage that is likely to remain unequaled. By June 1993, Psi Chi had registered more than 252,000 members in 806 chapters, making it the largest psychology-related organization in the world. (Registration in Psi Chi results in membership for life.) During the 1991-1992 fiscal year alone, 14,918 new members were added, the largest number inducted in any year since the society was founded in 1929. Among its current activities, Psi Chi sponsors student paper readings at regional and national meetings; presents programs at regional and national meetings; presents graduate, undergraduate, chapter, and faculty awards; and publishes a quarterly newsletter; and each year, through its local chapters, is responsible for hundreds, probably thousands, of other academic activities, social functions, and acts of community service among its student members. Yet, for all of its prominence, its beginnings were modest.
Late one night in 1927, two students were in the huge basement of the psychology department at the University of Kansas. In one room, Frederick Lewis was investigating laws of learning, using chicks as his subjects; nearby, Edwin Newman was working on the localization of brain function in dogs. As the evening wore on, the two aspiring psychologists, fatigued and trying hard to stay awake, met over a hot drink. They began musing over the state of their discipline. Lewis noted, with some displeasure, the absence of a national student organization in psychology. Newman, in complete agreement, challenged him to do something about it. With that challenge, the plans for a national psychology organization began to take form (Lewis, 1991b).
A committee was devised that conducted a survey to determine the appeal among other students. The regional APA meeting held in Madison, Wisconsin, in May 1928 served as a convenient gathering place for interested individuals. On the basis of suggestions from that meeting, a mail survey was sent to major colleges and universities to determine the status of associations of psychology students and the degree of interest in establishing a national society. The results were modestly encouraging. The only organization of psychology students at the time was an informal association of three psychology clubs in Ohio. Of the more than 100 respondents, one third offered strong support, another third appeared hesitant or doubtful, and the final third claimed that their needs were already being met, mostly through the American Psychological Association (APA; Lewis, 1979). Of particular note is the response of E. G. Boring, the noted historian of psychology. He found the proposal to be useless and wasteful. (See the Appendix for excerpts from Boring's letter.)
Despite the number of negative comments, the committee concluded that there was a need for the organization, and an assembly was called at the APA convention at Columbia University in December 1928. All of the individuals who had responded to the earlier query, pro or con, were invited to attend, which resulted in a lively meeting. The outcome was the establishment of the National Council for a Psychological Fraternity, whose task was to develop a plan of organization or, conversely, to vote the group out of existence altogether (Lewis, 1979).
Almost immediately, members of the council began working on a constitution, and, in May 1929, the constitution was tentatively approved at a meeting held in Urbana, Illinois. Final acceptance took place at the first national meeting held on September 4, 1929, at the Ninth International Congress of Psychology held at Yale University. Representatives of 11 departments of psychology signed the charter establishing the society. Three other departments were represented by proxy, bringing the total to 14 chapters. The constitution provided that institutions accepting membership by January 1, 1930, would also be considered charter members, which added 7 more chapters. Finally, the original 21 chapters voted charter status to Pennsylvania State University, bringing the total of charter members to 22. (See Table 1 for a list of the original chapters and signatories to the founding document.)
It should be noted that the name of the fraternity established at the gathering in New Haven, Connecticut, was Sigma Pi. Although the name Psi Chi had been considered originally, it was already in use as the name of a social fraternity in Oregon. A year later, J. P. Guilford discovered that the name had become available--the Oregon social fraternity had merged with another fraternity--and he encouraged the adoption of the name. Soon after, "Psi Chi" became the permanent name of the national honor society in psychology (Lewis, 1979).
The national officers elected at the first convention were, by chance, located as far apart geographically as possible: E. B. Newman (Kansas) was president, P. E. Martin (California) was secretary-treasurer, and M. H. (later F. H.) Lewis (Massachusetts) was historian. Consequently, in that first year it was difficult to conduct national business. Many basic issues of the newborn society had not been resolved by the time of the second annual meeting of Psi Chi, which was held in Iowa City. At that meeting, the society used its permanent name for the first time and elected a new set of officers including, as secretary-treasurer, the dynamic Ruth B. Guilford (Lewis, 1979).
With her high energy level and efficient work habits, Ruth Guilford regularized the activities of the national office within the year and began other activities that would stay with the organization long after she left office. In 1931, the newsletter was started, and in 1932, the first Psi Chi Handbook appeared. At that time, Psi Chi had 24 chapters and 474 active members (Guilford, 1986a). Other classes of membership (honorary, associate, and alumni) totaled an additional 792 individuals, for a combined membership of 1,266.
In those early years, several suggestions were made regarding potential activities for the organization. One chapter proposed that Psi Chi compile a list of all current psychological research and keep the list updated on a yearly basis. Another chapter suggested that Psi Chi purchase films that could be loaned to chapters for a small fee. (This was done for a few years.) A third recommended that Psi Chi sponsor a journal for the publication of news and research, a recommendation that was not accepted. A committee established to explore this last possibility, with J. P. Guilford as its chair, chose not to endorse the project, citing, among other reasons, the financial risk.
In the spring of 1934, the second Psi Chi Handbook was published. Psi Chi now had 27 chapters (2 had been dropped for inactivity) and 612 members, with a total of 1,920 members in all classes of membership. The following year, Ruth Guilford resigned, much to the disappointment of Martin Fritz, the incumbent Psi Chi president. A replacement was sought, with the offer of a yearly stipend of $125. Fortunately, E. Louise Hoffeditz (later E. L. H. Porter) accepted the offer.
Who Should Be Members?
The earliest chapters of Psi Chi were located in large colleges and universities. (The single exception was Wittenberg College, a charter member.) Applications from small liberal-arts colleges and teachers colleges had not received a favorable response. In 1936, President Martin Fritz brought the issue of exclusivity to the membership. Among the questions he asked were, What segment of the student psychological community should this new organization serve? Shall it restrict itself only to those planning to enter psychology as a profession?
A discussion followed among the national officers and chapter members and resulted in guidelines for membership. The guidelines contained three principal provisions: (a) that the school making application have an acceptable psychology major, (b) that the faculty have appropriate credentials, and (c) that the organization show signs of being relatively permanent. Those guidelines, with some minor revisions, are still in use today. Individual membership requires the completion of a specified number of psychology courses at a particular degree of competence. In general, the current requirements call for the completion of 8 semester hours of psychology credits, with a B average or better in psychology, and an overall rank in the top 35% of the class.
Another membership problem that emerged in the early years was the issue of honorary members. In the original constitution, chapters were given the power to elect honorary members, with the consent of the National Council. In 1930, this was amended to require that such designees be members of the APA or hold equivalent standing. Several chapters had elected honorary members who did not meet the standards of the National Council (to the great embarrassment of the council). The issue was not resolved fully until 1972, when new standards were adopted and the title was changed from "honorary member" to "distinguished member."
The War Years
By the fall of 1941, Psi Chi had grown to 34 chapters. Except for 2 chapters admitted in 1942, no additional chapters were added until World War II had ended. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the national president, through the Psi Chi Newsletter, asked the chapters to discuss matters of civilian defense and national morale and offered a publication list and an article to support that request. (No national meetings were held during the war years; discussion topics were substituted instead.) Stuart W. Cook, who agreed to stay on as Psi Chi president during the war despite his duties for the U.S. Army, proposed as the chapter discussion topic for 1941-1942 "the psychologist and national morale." The chapters engaged in many other war-related activities, including the establishment of campus information centers and sponsorship of groups to discuss the uses of propaganda during wartime.
Although many students and faculty were called to service, most chapters of Psi Chi continued to function during the war. A new national secretary, Dorothea Ewers, took office, the old mimeographed newsletter disappeared and was replaced with a more readable printed version, and the Library of Congress was put on the Psi Chi mailing list to ensure that newsletters would be preserved for future historians. In 1944, President Cook was suddenly ordered overseas and Psi Chi was without a chief executive officer. Aaron Q. Sartain, of Southern Methodist University, agreed to serve as acting president until, in the fall of 1945, Florence Goodenough was elected president. (A complete list of national officers appears in Table 2.)
The Postwar Years: A Time of Growth
Immediately after the war, there was increased interest in the activities of Psi Chi. Louisiana State University was accepted as the 38th chapter; letters of inquiry continued to arrive; formerly inactive chapters began to show signs of life; and, in 1946, Psi Chi presented a program of experimental studies at its annual meeting for the first time (Portenier, 1979). In 1947, five additional colleges and universities were granted charters; 14 more chapters were added in 1948. The national office was swamped with work. It was not clear how long it could maintain its operation according to the old rules. Papers continued to be presented at annual meetings to an enthusiastic response, and the number of chapters continued to expand. By September 1949, Psi Chi had grown to 73 chapters, and queries regarding new chapters continued at a substantial rate.
The discipline of psychology experienced increased acceptance both by the public and by the college and university system in the 1950s, and that acceptance was at least partially responsible for the growth in Psi Chi membership applications. Between 1950 and late 1954, 38 new chapters were granted charters, almost half again what had been achieved in the previous 20 years. By any standard, that was remarkable growth.
In 1950, Lillian G. Portenier was reelected president (she served from 1949 to 1952), and Frederick H. Lewis resigned as historian after occupying the office for more than 20 years. The role of historian was assumed by an old friend of Psi Chi, Ruth Guilford. At the APA convention at Pennsylvania State University in 1950, Steuart Henderson Britt offered an award to a Psi Chi member engaged in research and needing some financial assistance for its completion. The first award of $150 was given to Walter Barbe of Baylor University, and the award continued to be given until 1957. In 1954, the Kenneth W. Braly Awards were begun, and in 1958, awards were given for the first time by the Education, Marketing, and Management Foundation, Inc. (Portenier, 1979). Other Psi Chi - related awards were added later.
In 1951, Kenneth L. Smoke, who was then vice-president of the eastern region and would later become Psi Chi president (1953-1956), undertook a revision of the constitution and bylaws. At the September 1951 annual meeting, there was so much society business to be discussed, including the revised constitution, that the meeting originally scheduled for 2 hours took place instead over a period of 3 days (Guilford, 1986b). Even more important developments would occur at the national meeting in Washington, DC, in 1952.
At that gathering, the APA Committee on Student Activities called a meeting with the Psi Chi Council to discuss ways in which the two groups could work together. Following that meeting, the APA Council of Representatives voted favorably on several issues specifically directed at Psi Chi. They included the distribution of information regarding the society to chairs of psychology departments, the availability of space in the American Psychologist for Psi Chi news, and provisions for Psi Chi at the upcoming annual APA convention in Cleveland. The effect of all of this was to forge a strong bond between Psi Chi and the APA.
The 25th Anniversary: 1954
The silver anniversary setting for Psi Chi was the Statler Hotel in New York City. The meeting was held, as usual, in conjunction with the annual APA convention. Representatives from 45 chapters were present. A booth was made available at the APA convention for the display of material related to the society. Psi Chi offered to supply volunteers to assist in the meeting, and the offer was accepted.
The demands on the secretary-treasurer had grown so great by now that the title was changed to "executive secretary" to reflect the expansion of duties. The financial remuneration, although still low, was increased to approximate that of a half-time position. (By 1962, the position would formally be regarded as full time, although, informally, it had been that for some time.) Overall expenses had grown, requiring an increase in registration fees from $3 to $5, effective December 1, 1954.
An Early APA Affiliate
Psi Chi soon became a formal affiliate of the APA, but the foundation had been established many years before. In the October-January 1945-1946 newsletter, Dorothea Ewers, then secretary-treasurer, reported rumors that the APA was considering taking a student organization into the association. She solicited chapter responses, proposing that Psi Chi make a bid for this affiliation. The correspondence on this issue continued for many years until, finally, at the annual APA convention in Chicago in 1956, Psi Chi President Max Meenes appointed a committee to explore the relationship between Psi Chi and the APA. In 1958, through the additional efforts of Fillmore Sanford, executive secretary for the APA, and Roger Russell, his successor, the APA Council of Representatives voted to admit Psi Chi as an organizational affiliate.
The results of this affiliation were immediately apparent in several ways: reduced subscription rates for APA journals were arranged, time was allotted during the APA convention program for the organization, and members were allowed to register for the convention without charge. Also, as a result of the affiliation, the regions defined by the society were made to conform to that of the APA, which resulted in some chapters shifting regions.
One of the most satisfying innovations began in 1959. Psi Chi President Max Meenes asked the new Psi Chi executive secretary, Ruth Cousins, what she would like to see on the Psi Chi program. She proposed inviting distinguished speakers. Soon after, Leonard Carmichael was invited to speak at the APA convention in Cincinnati under the auspices of Psi Chi. Since then, Psi Chi has continued to sponsor distinguished speakers at the annual APA convention. In 1960, the speaker was Edwin G. Boring, the renowned historian of psychology, who had originally reacted so unfavorably to the proposals that gave birth to the organization more than 30 years before. He had, by this time, become an old friend of Psi Chi. Other speakers have included distinguished psychologists such as Otto Klineberg (1963), Jerome Bruner (1965), Rollo May (1976), Neal Miller (1979), and Carl Rogers (1985). B. F. Skinner was the speaker most frequently invited by Psi Chi; he appeared six times under the sponsorship of the society at the APA annual convention.
The Association of College Honor Societies
Because one of the goals of the society is the advancement of psychology as a science, Psi Chi is frequently mistaken for a professional fraternity. However, for the last several decades it has been an honor society. Ruth Cousins proposed the change to Wayne Dennis (Psi Chi national president in 1961 and 1962) and found a sympathetic ear. Dennis arranged for Cousins to attend the annual meetings of the Association of College Honor Societies (ACHS), and she used the information gathered from these meetings to keep the Society up to date and consistent with standards of honor societies throughout the nation (Portenier).
In 1964, after a survey of the membership, the National Council voted to affiliate with [become a member of] the ACHS. To meet the standards for affiliation [membership], Psi Chi was required to make one change in its constitution, another in its bylaws, and to change its title from an "honorary" society to an "honor" society. (Membership in an honor society is earned.) These changes were quickly made, and the society affiliated with [became a member of] the ACHS in 1965, achieving yet another level of nationwide recognition. Although membership requirements became more stringent because of the affiliation, the number of chapters continued to grow. By 1990, Psi Chi had the largest number of chapters of any of the 58 societies holding membership in the ACHS.
Ruth H. Cousins
The principal guiding force behind Psi Chi for more than three decades has been Ruth H. Cousins. (After 1969, her title was changed to executive director.) Working with the National Council, she set the tone and the direction of Psi Chi for most of that time. More than any single person, she has represented the character and continuity of the organization. Her term of office has been longer than that of all of her predecessors combined, and yet her original plan had been to stay no more than 1 year.
Ruth was a "perpetual student" in her younger days, always taking courses--at Duke University, George Washington University, and American University. She eventually completed a bachelor's degree and a master's degree at George Washington University, and later she completed all of the course requirements for a doctoral degree in psychology at American University, lacking only the dissertation.
It was while she was beginning her master's study that she was approached to take over the Psi Chi position. Although Ruth was married and raising two daughters, a favorite teacher from George Washington University, Eva Johnson, encouraged her to take the position. Ruth's husband offered his services on an informal basis when he saw the desperate need of the society. James F. Cousins was an executive who had majored in economics at Duke University, had studied commercial law at Columbia University and tax law at New York University, and held a certified public accountant certificate from New York. Moreover, he was knowledgeable about nonprofit organizations. He thought that, together, he and Ruth could get the organization on its feet. Ruth accepted the position with the understanding that it would last 1 year. She assumed her new role during the last week of December 1958, with 3 days' preparation, at a salary of $3,000 per year (Cousins, 1990).
Her husband's background was enormously helpful during that early period. For instance, it was he who insisted that Ruth immediately file a tax form for the organization. The filing was fortunate because two Internal Revenue Service agents appeared only a few days later, asking why a filing had never taken place. Jim Cousins also helped establish the bookkeeping system and, to an extent, literally supported the organization (e.g., supplying postage when there was no money available for it from the organization). The Psi Chi Newsletter also bore his imprint because he helped Ruth design a new format for the publication, of which she was the editor.
Ruth had already made plans to resign at the end of her year (December 1959) when, in September 1959, her husband died following an operation for a ruptured appendix. The president of the society recognized Jim in the fall 1959 newsletter for his contributions, calling him a very capable and highly respected man and concluding that Psi Chi lost a good friend (Hogan, 1991).
In addition to the burden of her widowhood, Ruth now had family businesses to oversee. And although she did not find the salary a strong inducement, she elected to stay with Psi Chi, sometimes turning her duties into a family affair, with her daughters helping with typing and filing. Her contract was renewed one year at a time for the next 20 years until, finally, it was renewed on a 3-year cycle.
One of Ruth's proudest achievements with Psi Chi was its change of identity to that of an honor society. The spark that prompted the change was innocent enough. A Psi Chi chapter in the Midwest wrote to ask what they received from Psi Chi in return for their registration fee. A Psi Chi officer wrote in reply: "The only service we offer is to store your membership record." Ruth later said this statement broke her heart. She knew the organization could offer so much more. However, when Ruth tried to present the idea of an honor society to the the incumbent Psi Chi president, he expressed no interest in the change. Fortunately, when Wayne Dennis became president, Ruth found an enthusiastic supporter. The organization began the process to become an honor society during Dennis's tenure (Cousins, 1990).
In August 1989, Edwin B. Newman, the cofounder and first president of Psi Chi, wrote his last letter to the national office. (He died on December 30, 1989.) It contains several thoughtful comments about Psi Chi and the nature of psychology in earlier days. It also contains a fine and accurate tribute to Ruth Cousins. Speaking to Ruth, he wrote, "Far more than most people recognize, Psi Chi is not what we founded, it is what you have made it" (Lewis, 1991a).
Preparing for the Future
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Psi Chi leadership began a series of moves to make the organization more responsive to the times and to lay down a plan for the future. These actions included improved efficiency, reassessing the needs of the membership, and ensuring the continuity of the organization. In 1956, Psi Chi moved into the attic of the 16th Street building of the APA in Washington, DC, and, in the fall of 1964, moved into the new 17th Street headquarters of the APA. For the first time, there was adequate space for the executive director and her one-person, part-time staff. (For several weeks prior to the move, while between buildings, Psi Chi had operated out of the home of Ruth Cousins.) In January 1980, Psi Chi moved to another APA building in Arlington, Virginia. Finally, in November 1987, after a search by the Executive Committee, the society relocated to its present address in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Modern communication no longer required a geographical presence in Washington, DC, and Chattanooga presented many advantages financially. Among them, Psi Chi finally had the large space needed to accommodate the growing organization.
Beginning in the late 1960s, the National Council began to explore the possibility of changing its structure. The central question concerned the degree to which the student members should be involved with the running of the organization. Several proposals were reviewed. In the end, it was determined that most students were content to leave administrative matters to the National Council and to focus their energies on local events. In response to several requests that Psi Chi become a social action group rather than an honor society, a questionnaire was submitted to the membership. The results showed a preference for remaining an honor society.
However, several policies were enacted concerning the National Council that would restructure some aspects of the organization. For instance, beginning in 1970, candidates for national president were required to have served on the National Council sometime [a minimum of 2 years] during the previous 10 years. This was done in order to ensure familiarity with the basic workings of the organization and to encourage building on past achievements. In 1977, the presidential term was limited to 1 year, with the possibility of election to two additional 1-year terms. This change was introduced to encourage candidates for president who might not be able to commit themselves for a longer period. In 1986, the organizational structure was changed to president-elect, president, and past president. Thus, Paul J. Lloyd became the last individual to serve 3 years as president and the first to serve as past president. In that same year, Virginia S. Sexton was elected president, and Arthur C. McKinney became president-elect.
Other changes included the institution of additional student research awards. The J. P. Guilford Undergraduate Research Award, honoring a distinguished psychologist and founding signatory of the organization, was begun in 1967. In 1976, certificates were awarded for the first time to students who presented research at approved conventions and conferences. A graduate student award, the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, sponsored jointly by Psi Chi and the APA, was begun in 1979. It honors the cofounder and first president of Psi Chi, who went on to a distinguished academic career in psychology and later served as recording secretary (1962-1967) of the APA (Hunt, 1986). Finally, in 1991, the first Frederick Howell Lewis Psi Chi Distinguished Lecture was presented at the APA annual convention. It was named in honor of Psi Chi cofounder F. H. Lewis, who, appropriately enough, was the first distinguished lecturer to be presented.
The 1980s were characterized by further growth, a continued focus on fiscal stability, a renewed interest in the international scene, the establishment of the Long-Range Planning Committee, and a change in the office of historian of the organization (Wertheimer, 1986a). During the 1981-1982 academic year, 7,322 new members were initiated [inducted] into Psi Chi, the largest number in a single year up to that time. In that same year, 27 new chapters were chartered (Wertheimer, 1986b). Throughout the 1980s, new chapters continued to be added, and many inactive chapters were reactivated. Hundreds of certificates were presented to faculty advisors, outstanding students, and students who presented research papers at approved conferences. Psi Chi members were given the opportunity to become affiliates of the International Council of Psychologists and to submit papers to international conferences. The one-time initiation [registration] fee was increased to $25 in 1982 to meet increased costs, and the National Council chose the Archives of the History of American Psychology as the official depository for Psi Chi archival material.
The 1980s also saw the appearance of three more awards, sponsored, at least in part, by Psi Chi. They were the Samuel J. Beck Graduate Research Award; the Psi Chi/APA Division 21 (Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology) Undergraduate Research Award; and a third award for faculty advisors, endowed by Florence Denmark and presented for the first time in 1987. A fourth award, the Psi Chi/Ruth Hubbard Cousins National Chapter Award, was presented for the first time in 1992. (The first two awards were later eliminated from Psi Chi sponsorship because they were deemed too specialized.)
At the close of the 1980s, Psi Chi continued to stress plans that focused on the continued existence and vitality of the organization. Wise financial management by the National Council and by Ruth Cousins, who also acted as treasurer for the organization, resulted in a monetary surplus. This had been a long-sought-after goal, principally designed to ensure the continuity of the organization in case of shifting student demographics and the possibility of resulting lean times.
As further evidence of its ability to plan for the future, a strong relationship has been built between Psi Chi and Psi Beta, the [national] honor society for psychology in 2-year [community and junior] colleges. The latter has become an increasingly important organization as student enrollment in 2-year colleges has grown. The ACHS has not permitted honor societies from 2-year colleges to join its ranks. Nonetheless, Psi Beta has made available to a large group of students interested in psychology many of the same opportunities offered by Psi Chi. In 1986, at the annual meeting with APA held that year in Washington, DC, Psi Chi and Psi Beta cosponsored an open meeting, further developing what had already become a valuable relationship (MacKinney, 1986). Since then, they have continued to cosponsor other programs at the annual meeting.
As Psi Chi enters the 1990s, however, a dramatic change has taken place for which the organization could not fully prepare. Ruth Cousins, who guided the society for more than 30 years, retired as executive director in October 1991. Her retirement was anticipated, and planning for the event took place for more than a year before the actual date. It is certain to be the end of an era for Psi Chi. However, as Ruth would be the first to point out, it is also the beginning of another.
Cousins, R. H. (1990, August). The Psi Chi legacy. Paper presented at the 98th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston.
Guilford, R. B. (1986a). A brief history of Psi Chi. In A. C. MacKinney (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology (pp. 56-58). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.
Guilford, R. B. (1986b). Psi Chi history: 1950–1954. In A. C. MacKinney (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology (pp. 59-61). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.
Hogan, J. D. (1991). Psi Chi's first 62 years (Cassette recording No. APA-91-140). Aurora, CO: Sound Images.
Hunt, T. (1986). The fifth decade: 1969-1979. In A. C. MacKinney (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology: 1929-1986 (pp. 26-30). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.
Lewis, F. H. (1979). Twenty years of Psi Chi. In T. Hunt (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology: Fiftieth anniversary. 1929-1979 (pp. 62-75). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.
Lewis, F. H. (1991a, August). Symposium: A celebration of Ruth Hubbard Cousins' contributions to Psi Chi. Comments presented at the 99th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.
Lewis, F. H. (1991b, August). Psi Chi: The early years. Paper presented at the 99th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.
MacKinney, A. C. (1986). Psi Chi history, 1983–1986. In A. C. McKinney (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology: 1929 - 1986 (pp.1-14). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.
Portenier, L. G. (1979). The fortieth anniversary: 1954–1969. In T. Hunt (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology: Fiftieth anniversary, 1929–1979 (pp. 16-26). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.
Wertheimer, M. (1986). Psi Chi continues strong, takes on expanded international perspective. In A. C. McKinney (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology (pp. 15-17). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.
Wertheimer, M. (1986). Psi Chi initiates more members than ever before, has another fine year. In A. C. McKinney (Ed.), History of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology (pp. 17-19). Arlington, VA: Psi Chi.