2000-2001 Allyn & Bacon Award Abstracts
The Role of the Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad in Mental Arithmetic
Jennifer A. Slezak
Faculty Sponsor: Kathy Milar, PhD
The present study investigated the role of the visuo-spatial sketch pad subsystem of working memory in performing mental arithmetic. Participants were 48 college students. Each participant completed 3 conditions: single-task, dual-task visual, and dual-task spatial. In the single-task condition, participants mentally summed 15 strings of 2-digit numbers. In the dual-task visual condition, participants summed 15 strings of numbers while looking at a series of images on a television screen. In the dual-task spatial condition, participants mentally summed 15 strings of numbers while drawing geometric shapes on a piece of paper. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant results. Participants made more errors in the dual-task conditions than in the single-task condition, giving support for the involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad in mental arithmetic. Additionally, mean scores from the visual and the spatial conditions differed significantly, indicating that perhaps the visuo-spatial sketch pad is composed of 2 separate systems. Further research should be conducted to build support for the involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad in mental arithmetic and to investigate whether the visuo-spatial sketchpad is composed of 2 separate systems.
The Generation Effect and Item-Source Memory: Evidence Against the Tradeoff
Danielle Marie Haynes
Metropolitan State College of Denver
Faculty Sponsor: Pam Ansburg, PhD
The present experiment was designed to test the limits of Jurica and Shimamura's findings of a negative generation effect on source memory, and therefore, an item-source memory tradeoff (1999). Twenty-nine participants generated answers to questions in conjunction with a pictured person. Participants were assigned to either a self-focused or other-focused generating condition. Following generation, item recall and source recognition tests were administered. Results showed that other-focused generation led to a significant improvement in source memory, when compared to self-focused generation, without detriment to item memory. These findings imply limits to the item-source tradeoff theory.
Eminem Versus Charley Pride: Race, Stereotypes, and Perceptions of Rap and Country Music Performers
Allison J. Dickson
Faculty Sponsor: Traci A. Giuliano, PhD
The present study explored the effects of stereotype deviation in the music industry on people's perceptions of performers. One hundred college students (48 men, 52 women) were asked to examine a profile of a fictitious performer containing a picture, a brief biography, and a lyric sample. As part of a 2-way between-subjects design, participants made judgments about either a Black or a White musician who performed either rap or country music. The results showed that a Black rap performer and a White country performer were rated more favorably than were a Black country performer and a White rap performer. Consistent with predictions, people who violate societal expectations are judged more harshly than are people who conform to societal expectations, particularly in cases involving strong preexisting racial stereotypes.