2005-06 Guilford Award Abstracts
Personality and Behavioural Impairments as Risk for Cognitive Impairment
Janet A. Stepaniuk, University of Victoria (BC)
First Place Guilford Award Winner
Faculty Sponsor: Holly Tuokko, PhD
The early identification of those at increased risk for cognitive impairment, and dementia is of growing importance as populations age. Impairment in both cognition and neuropsychiatric personality/behaviors has been identified as risk factors for dementia. In this study we examined the relations between personality/behavioral impairments and cognitive impairments as early risk factors for dementia. This study examined data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a longitudinal, nation-wide study where data was collected three times at five year intervals (1991, 1996, 2001). Participants at CSHA-2 (1996) who were classified with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) showed significantly more personality and behavioral impairments (PBI) than participants who were classified as Not Cognitively Impaired (NCI). Additionally, when retrospective analysis was conducted, participants who displayed PBI at CSHA-1 (1991) were more likely to be classified with MCI five years later. Furthermore, individuals with MCI were then more likely to be diagnosed with dementia five years later at CSHA-3 (2001). These findings demonstrate the likelihood of a continuum of decline for individuals who are most likely to proceed from MCI to dementia and that personality and/or behavioral impairments may be useful indicators in early detection.
Self-Efficacy and Risk Perception: Psychological Variables of Women's Adherence Over a Six-Week Weight Loss Program
Laurel M. Peterson, Dickinson College (PA)
Second Place Guilford Award Winner
Faculty Sponsor: Marie Helweg-Larsen, PhD
Exercise and diet interventions reduce weight and related health risks (diabetes and heart attack). Adherence to these behaviors may relate to psychological variables. Results from a survey study over a six-week weight loss program indicate that women's (N = 53) diet self-efficacy was predictive of diet adherence, though exercise self-efficacy was only marginally predictive of exercise adherence. Overall women did not report comparative optimism (thinking they were better off than others) for heart attack or diabetes risk. Women reported comparative pessimism for achieving their weight loss goal at the end of the program. Results indicate the importance of self-efficacy for encouraging diet adherence, and provide insight to future research relating risk perceptions and behaviors.
Children's Own Evaluations and Their Perceptions of Adults' Evaluations of Lying and Truth-Telling
Sarah C. Preston, Davidson College (NC)
Third Place Guilford Award Winner
Faculty Sponsor: Ruth Ault, PhD
The present study compares children's own moral evaluations to their perception of adult's evaluations of lie- and truth-telling. Twenty first graders, 20 third graders, and 20 fourth graders heard stories about a child doing something good or naughty and telling a lie or the truth to a teacher. Participants used a 7-point goodness scale to indicate their own rating, and a rating they attributed to an adult, of the story character's statement. First graders' overall truth ratings were lower than third graders', and all children's attributed lie ratings were lower than their own lie ratings. The findings suggest that children understand the naughtiness of lies before they understand the goodness of truth and that they believe that adults have an objective view of lie-telling.