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Psi Chi Journal Spring/Summer 1996

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 1.1-2 | Spring/Summer 1996

RESEARCH ARTICLES

...And Justice for All? The Effect of Name Cues to Race on Judicial Decisions
Dina Shaneberger, Nicole Williamson, and Sheila Brownlow, Catawba College

ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of a subtle cue to race–a person’s name–on attributions of culpability and subsequent sentencing in a fictitious armed robbery case. White participants read a police report containing basic information about a crime that varied only according to the name of the perpetrator on the report. In one condition, the woman suspect’s name was clearly Black, in another White, and in a third condition no name information appeared. We predicted that a perpetrator with a Black name would be judged more harshly and given a longer jail sentence than a perpetrator with a White name. Effects of both name race and participant sex emerged, although the main hypothesis was not supported. Perpetrators with Black names were seen as more likely to have committed similar crimes in the past. Women perceived outside influences to be more contributory to the suspect’s actions when compared to men, whereas men assigned longer jail sentences to all suspects. The results are discussed within a theoretical framework suggesting that racism is most likely to be seen when only subtle or ambiguous cues are present, but will not be manifested when cues for socially acceptable behavior are evident.

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The Demographics of Cheating in College Students
Melanie Butler, Tiffani Ridley, and Mary Allen, California State University, Bakersfield

ABSTRACT: Cheating in college has become a serious problem. Thirteen cheating behaviors were examined among 81 state university and 29 community college students with an average age of 23.38 years (SD = 5.92). Based on the literature, we hypothesized that men find students with low grade point averages cheat more often. In addition, we examined the effects of ethnicity, campus type (community college vs. university), student status (full- vs. part-time), and age on types and rates of cheating behaviors. Students were asked to report the frequency of each behavior in an academic year. Most students (78%) reported cheating of at least one type. Grade point average and age were significantly negatively related to reported cheating; sex, ethnicity, campus type, and student status were not. Although more common among younger and academically weaker students, cheating occurs across ethnic groups, campuses, and types of students. Cheating may be caused by a number of different factors. Steps should be taken to create an environment in which cheating is less likely to occur.

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Looking for Love in All the Wrong Places? Sex and Race Differences
in Mate Selection Through the Personal Ads

Connie C. Lyerly, Stephanie M. Smith, and Sheila Brownlow, Catawba College

ABSTRACT: To examine race and sex differences in mating preferences, we conducted a content analysis of a sample of 1,003 personal advertisements, examining what people offer and seek in a dating partner. The results confirmed both sociobiological theory and the matching hypothesis, indicating that women offered attractiveness and information about their appearance and sought older men. Men looked for young, healthy, attractive women. Women also articulated more personal qualities that they desired in a mate and specified that they wanted a similar partner. Ad placers who were Black were less particular about the age and hobbies of their desired mate, although Black women were most likely to provide a list of what they did not want in a partner. Black women were least likely to seek an attractive partner, stipulating instead that they sought a partner with financial and career status. By contrast, Black men offered their appearance to potential mates rather than their career and financial status.

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Personality and Eyewitness Suggestibility
Michael A. Proudfoot and Kerri L. Pickel, Ball State University

ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated a phenomenon known as the misinformation effect: After viewing an event, witnesses given misleading information are more likely than controls to report details consistent with that information. In Study 1, witnesses watched a video depicting a car chase and then completed a questionnaire containing either misleading or accurate information. Later we tested their memory for the video. Among nonmisled witnesses, high scores on self-deception and impression management measures correlated positively with accuracy. No correlation was found among misled witnesses. With additional evidence from Study 2, we argue that the results support the memory impairment explanation for the misinformation effect and do not support any of the other 3 explanations researchers have proposed.

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Anxiety and Self-Confidence in Relation to Individual and
Team Sports: A Reevaluation

Eric Thomas and Jason P. Kring, Emporia State College

ABSTRACT: The present study replicated 2 previous studies to determine if athletes who compete solo differ from those who compete as part of a team with regard to anxiety and self-confidence. Athletes, 49 men and 35 women, were divided by sport context and asked to complete the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2). The analyses showed individual sport athletes exhibit significantly higher levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety and lower levels of self-confidence than team sport athletes who report less cognitive and somatic anxiety and more self-confidence. These findings were consistent with the conclusions of previous studies and support that sport context infiuences athletes’ precompetitive cognitions (Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990; Wong, Lox, & Clark, 1993).

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Needs Assessment and Program Evaluation
Katherine Glaser and George W. Glaser, Humboldt State University

ABSTRACT: Students lack knowledge of the preparation required for graduate admissions. The need for and the impact of a training program in the graduate admissions process were investigated. The pilot training program included needs assessment, training, and program evaluation elements. A convenience sample of 128 female and 76 male psychology students participated in the study. Materials consisted of 2 questionnaires and a training module that included a training handbook. The program evaluation employed a nonequivalent control group design. Results suggest training on the graduate admissions process is needed and has an impact on students. With an alpha level of .05, the mean "assessed impact" score and the mean "perceived impact" score for the training group significantly exceeded those scores for the comparison group.

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The Effect of Sex Role Orientation and Level of Involvement on Mate Selection
Michael Scherder, Susan Seiter, and Larry Boehm, Thomas More College

ABSTRACT: This study examined the influence of sex, sex role orientation, and type of relationship on preferred mate characteristics. Participants completed a Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) and then rated 28 different characteristics for importance in various opposite-sex relationships including marriage, steady date, single date, one-night stand, and platonic friend. We found the type of relationship had significant effects on preferred mate characteristics whereas sex and sex role orientation had little effect on desirable mate characteristics.

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Inaugural Editorial
Stephen F. Davis, Managing Editor, Emporia State University

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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