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Psi Chi Journal Fall/Winter 1996

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 1.3-4 | Fall/Winter 1996

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Personality, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behavior in a College Population
Alissa C. Huth-Bocks, University of Michigan

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between personality characteristics and sensation seeking, as well as sex differences in risk-taking behaviors such as substance abuse and unsafe sex. The sample consisted of 47 undergraduate students (22 men and 25 women) at a public, midwestern university. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS)-Form V and a personality questionnaire that yields the Big Five personality traits were administered to all participants. Results indicated Extroversion predicted sensation seeking in females only, whereas low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness predicted sensation seeking in the entire sample. Furthermore, men appeared to be significantly more willing to find interested in taking risks than women. These findings help explain who is most likely to engage in risky behaviors in an undergraduate population, which ultimately could be used to develop more efficacious prevention programs for this population.

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The Effects of Noise and Gender on Cognitive Processing Speed
Julie L. Cordova, Pacific Lutheran University

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in sensitivity to noise and the impact of that sensitivity on cognitive task performance. Although previous research has yielded conflicting results, one consistent finding suggests that gender has a complex relationship with performance under noise conditions. A computerized reaction time test designed to assess cognitive processing speed was given to 28 participants in a 2 x 2 (Gender x Noise Condition) experimental design. The test included both simple and complex reaction time tasks. Simple reaction time, as predicted, was unaffected by noise; however, results did not support the hypothesis that noise would slow complex reaction time. Although no significant interaction effect was found between gender and noise, a significant main effect of gender was found across tasks and noise conditions. These findings are discussed and further research alternatives are suggested.

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The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Memory With
the Presence of Artificially Induced Arousal

S Michael S. Farrar and Todd C. Alexander, Belmont University

ABSTRACT: The effects of sleep deprivation on memory and arousal and the use of a nootropic drug to reverse those effects were investigated. Three groups of rats were used: a nontreatment group, an ephedrine-injected group, and a saline-injected group. All groups were taught a lever-press task in an operant chamber. The ephedrine and saline groups were deprived of sleep 24 hr prior to the learning task and were administered ephedrine or saline 15 min before the session. Four hr later, all groups were tested in the operant chamber for their memory of the learning task. Although the results of this study revealed significance in learning performance as time increased, no significance was found between group learning performance or between group memory performance. It was concluded the mechanisms of arousal and memory may be similar. It was also determined that the claims made for and against ephedrine as a nootropic drug are inconclusive.

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Self-Esteem and Health-Related Behaviors in College Students and Their Parents
Colleen Frantz, Amy B. McKenna, Charles I. Brooks,
and Jean P. O’Brien, King’s College


ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the relationship between the personality trait of self-esteem and the tendency to engage in healthful behaviors (e.g., diet, limiting alcohol consumption, physical self-examinations) in college students and their parents. Both students and parents completed the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory and a survey assessing health practices. Correlations between the two measures showed that for students, high self-esteem was positively related to good health practices like exercise and responsible eating, reduced alcohol consumption, and not drinking and driving. Parents’ self-esteem, on the other hand, was unrelated to those behaviors, and negatively correlated with frequency of physical checkups and likelihood of physical self-examinations.

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Differences in Latency to Articulate Thoughts Versus Feelings
Using the ATSS Paradigm

Erin N. Ring and Gerald Davison, University of California

ABSTRACT: This study is a detailed look at the different latencies to express either concurrent thoughts or feelings in the Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations (ATSS) paradigm. Based on information processing theory, it was hypothesized there would be a greater time delay between the find of a scenario segment and the beginning of an articulation when people were asked to give their feelings versus their thoughts. This differential was assumed to be due to a translation step that may occur when people attempt to put their feelings into words. Data were collected from 55 participants who listened to both a provocative and a neutral stimulus tape. Although there were no significant differences in latency between articulation of thoughts and feelings, there were meaningful differences between the provocative and neutral latencies.

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Time-Out: Is It an Effective Method of Behavioral Control?
Janet L. Butala, Saint Vincent College

ABSTRACT: Research by Crespi (1988) and Fee, Matson, and Manikam (1990) showed time-out to be an effective form of punishment for controlling undesired behaviors, such as temper tantrums, aggression, and disobedience in psychiatric patients, adjudicated youths, youths in day-treatment programs, and preschool children. The present study examined the effectiveness of time-out procedures, verbal warning/reprimands, and no punishment with preschool children. The effectiveness of punishment was determined by observing children’s behavior immediately following punishment. It was hypothesized that undesirable behaviors would decline more following time-out procedures than after a verbal warning/reprimand or no punishment. Analyses did not support this hypothesis; however, results were in the anticipated direction.

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Today's Moms: The Effect of Employment and Traditional/Nontraditional Attitudes
Haley M. Huba, West Chester University

ABSTRACT: In this research the proposed hypothesis states that stay-at-home mothers with traditional attitudes would have better well-being than stay-at-home mothers with nontraditional attitudes, and employed mothers with nontraditional attitudes would have better well-being than employed mothers with traditional attitudes. The research examined employment status and attitudes about women’s role in society (Attitudes toward Women Scale--AWS) on the well-being of mothers (Beck Depression Inventory--BDI). Although level of well-being was significantly influenced by employment status for nonemployed mothers in the public school sample, there were no differences in well-being for the private school sample. However, significant differences in income levels may have influenced the outcome of this study.

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An Insider's View into the Review Process
Kirsten L. Rewey, Saint Vincent College

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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