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Psi Chi Journal Spring 1998

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 3.1 | Spring 1998

RESEARCH ARTICLES

A Quantitative Dendritic Analysis of a Bulimic Brain: A Case Study
Birgit M. Fisher and Bob Jacobs, The Colorado College

ABSTRACT: Supragranular pyramidal cells (N = 150) from frontal lobe areas with different thalamic-prefrontal connections were investigated for bulimic effects. Tissue from the left hemisphere of 1 neurologically normal, bulimic Caucasian female (age = 32 years) and 2 neurologically normal, Caucasian male control patients (ages = 23 and 32) was Golgi stained and quantified on a Neurolucida computer-microscope system (Microbrightfield, Inc.). An anterior-posterior gradient in dendritic complexity and spine numbers emerged. Differences were found in prefrontal regions between the bulimic patient and controls, with higher dependent measures emerging for the controls. No apparent pattern emerged in posterior regions. Present findings suggest a potential connection between bulimia and prefrontal neuromorphological abnormalities related to postulated subcortical disturbances.

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College Students' Attitudes Toward Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Sports
Angela R. Goon, Shanna Teel, Sharon Fuller, and Mary J. Allen,
California State University, Bakersfield


ABSTRACT: Title IX of the Education Amendments was created in 1972 to eliminate sex discrimination in intercollegiate athletics. Strategies for achieving gender equity are becoming increasingly important as federally mandated compliance dates approach. We surveyed 106 college students enrolled at California State University, Bakersfield—94 students from the general student body (67 women and 27 men) and 12 students who were track team athletes (4 women, 7 men, and 1 undeclared)—concerning their opinions on gender equity. The expected sex difference was not significant. Overall, most students support equity programs to increase opportunities for female athletes, including establishing sex quotas and reducing the size of men’s teams, but they do not believe a proportional number of scholarships should be granted to female athletes. Likewise, they do not believe equity compliance should include canceling existing men’s programs.

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The Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports:
Correlation With Cognitive Function?
Benjamin Nicholas C. Rinehart and F. Richard Ferraro, University of North Dakota

ABSTRACT: The Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS) was designed to measure the following skills: Anxiety Control, Concentration, Confidence, Mental Preparation, Motivation, and Team Emphasis. This study examined the internal consistency of PSIS scales, and examined whether specific scales discriminated among differently skilled athletes (predictive validity), and whether specific scales significantly correlated with other cognitive tasks (construct validity). Collegiate athletes, intramural athletes, and nonathletes completed the PSIS and 4 cognitive tasks designed to measure similar concepts. The Confidence and Motivation scales were the only scales that demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Analyses revealed the following: (a) the Motivation scale showed moderate predictive validity, (b) the Anxiety Control and Concentration scales showed mild predictive validity, and (c) the Confidence, Mental Preparation, and Team Emphasis scales demonstrated no predictive validity. The Anxiety Control scale was the only scale to show a relationship to cognitive function (construct validity). Data indicate the PSIS, in its present form, should not be used for applied purposes.

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The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on Self-Esteem,
Academic Achievement, and Aggression in College Students

Marth M. Bleeker, Shelby C. Evans, Michielle N. Fisher,
and Kourtney A. Miller, Emporia State University


ABSTRACT: The present study focuses on the relationship between undergraduate student involvement in extracurricular activities and levels of self-esteem, academic performance, and aggression. Previous studies involving high school and college students (Hamachek, 1995; Monashkin, 1953) reported a positive correlation between participation in social activities and increased self-esteem and school performance. Membership in clubs and athletic groups increases feelings of inclusion, thus diminishing aggressive behavior (Leary, Schreindorfer, & Haupt, 1995). In the present study, 113 undergraduate students at a medium-sized midwestern university were given the Texas Social Behavioral Inventory (Helmreich & Stapp, 1974) and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992). The scores on these inventories were related to the students’ extracurricular involvement and their cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Women involved in social clubs had significantly higher self-esteem scores than women involved in athletics and women not involved in activities. Men participating in social clubs had significantly higher hostile aggression scores than did women involved in social clubs. Thus, for women, self-esteem is positively related to extracurricular activities, whereas for men, the relationship is less clear.

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Cross-Cultural Differences in Perception of Physical Attractiveness
Maria Y. Khersonskaya and Randolph A. Smith, Ouachita Baptist University

ABSTRACT: This study investigated cross-cultural differences in perception of physical attractiveness. Twenty-two international students (11 women and 11 men) and 22 White American students (11 women and 11 men) participated in the experiment. The participants rated physical attractiveness of portrait models (18 black-and-white college yearbook photographs of White American students; 9 men and 9 women) on a 5-point Likert scale. American participants perceived photographs of American students as more attractive than did European participants (p < .001). Sex of the participants did not affect the ratings. The results of the study support the existence of cultural influences on perception of physical attractiveness.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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