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Psi Chi Journal Summer 1998

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 3.2 | Summer 1998

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Different I's of Different Beholders: Self-Monitoring and the
Categorization of Self And Others

Kenneth Weadick, Randall E. Osborne, James Penticuff, and Joseph Norman, Indiana University East; Jason Young, Hunter College CUNY

ABSTRACT: Four studies examined differences between high and low self-monitors in terms of the processing of self-relevant information, categories of descriptors used to describe self and others, and basic information processing strategies. Results revealed high self-monitors use more physical appearance and social relationship adjectives to describe themselves (Study 1) and their best friends (Study 2), whereas low self-monitors utilize significantly more trait adjectives. Results from Studies 3 and 4 suggest high and low self-monitors show this same divergent use of categories and information processing strategies when recalling information about a new acquaintance and processing auditory information. The implications of these findings for the social information processing and behavioral choices of high and low self-monitors are discussed.

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A Sex Difference in the Effect of Low Levels of Caffeine on the Stroop Task
Jeremy C. Owens and John Broida, University of Southern Maine

ABSTRACT: Low levels of caffeine may decrease performance on complex cognitive tasks. To test this hypothesis 63 psychology students participated in a study examining the effects of 45 mg of caffeine on the Stroop task. The participants consumed either a 12-oz (355-ml) can of Coca-Cola or a 12-oz (355-ml) can of caffeine-free Coca-Cola. A short questionnaire was then answered by the participants, after which they completed a computerized version of the Stroop task. We observed that women had slower reaction times than men (p < .001), and that the effects of caffeine were sex specific, having a significant effect only on men (p < .01). We also found a significant main effect of display (p < .001), and an interaction between sex and display (p < .05), which occurred only in the conflict condition of the Stroop task. These sex differences may reflect the lipid-soluble nature of caffeine. The decreased performance in the caffeine group can be explained by the Yerkes-Dodson law.

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Toss Salt and Touch a Hunchback: Superstitious Beliefs and Attributional Style
as a Function of Sex and Peer Group Affiliation

Melanie A. Kilby, Mandi Berry, and Sheila Brownlow, Catawba College

ABSTRACT: Research concerning the acquisition of superstition and the social and personal factors relating to superstitious belief is common; however, little is known about joint effects of factors such as peer group affiliation, sex, and time of exposure to a peer group on adherence to superstitions and extraordinary beliefs. First- and fourth-year college students affiliated with traditionally superstitious groups (theater majors and sports players) as well as those without a traditionally superstitious peer group took the Paranormal Beliefs Scale (Tobacyk & Milford, 1983) and the Common Superstition Scale (Blum & Blum, 1974), and completed measures regarding belief in and adherence to horoscopes, belief in theater superstitions, and the practice of sports rituals. In addition, participants also completed indices of attributional style. Results revealed that theater majors reported more beliefs in paranormal phenomena, but that sports players—despite their high internal locus of control—believed more strongly in superstitions. Exposure to superstitious peer groups did not increase peer group effects. Women more than men indicated that they engaged in behavioral superstitions (such as following horoscopes and utilizing object rituals), but men reported stronger beliefs in extraordinary life-forms and spiritualism. The tendency for women to engage in superstitious behaviors may be a function of their tendency to blame themselves for their failures, thus leading them to perform behaviors to attempt to gain an illusion of control over their personal environment.

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Educational Intervention on Awareness of Diet-Relevant Material
in Dieters and Nondieters

Shayne G. Fettig and F. Richard Ferraro, University of North Dakota

ABSTRACT: We determined if a 60-min video intervention increased awareness about eating disorders among dieting and nondieting individuals. Eighty-six women, operationally defined as dieters (n = 35) or nondieters (n = 51), completed questionnaires measuring behavioral characteristics typically associated with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. They also viewed a 60-min videotape about diet and weight-relevant information and were examined (via a surprise quiz) on their knowledge of information retained from this video. Information in the video affected performance, but only with regard to self-esteem and importance of weight to significant others. Dieters indicated their weight as more important to their significant others, whereas nondieters showed the opposite pattern. Likewise, dieters’ self-esteem decreased after viewing the video, whereas nondieters’ self-esteem increased. Implications for educational interventions and eating disorders are discussed.

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Another Perspective on Publishing: Keeping the Editor Happy
Randolph A. Smith, Ouachita Baptist University

ABSTRACT: This article presents information from an editor’s perspective about submitting manuscripts to journals.  Authors should know the journal to which they submit, read and follow directions, respond to reviews, and bide their time after submitting their manuscript.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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