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Psi Chi Journal Winter 1999

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 4.4 | Winter 1999

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Desired Characteristics of a Potential Partner as a Function of Perceived
Qualities of Opposite-Sex Parent

Heather L. Fry and Harvey R. Freeman, Ohio Wesleyan University

ABSTRACT: The influence of the perceived quality of the relationship between an individual and the opposite-sex parent on the characteristics desired in a potential mate was examined. One hundred and twenty male and female college students completed a questionnaire in which they rated 3 targets (typical opposite-sex parent, their own opposite-sex parent, and their ideal partner) on a 10-item measure of personal qualities. Participants' perceived quality of relationship with their opposite-sex parent was assessed using a 4-item measure. Both men and women who perceived the relationship with their opposite-sex parent to be of high quality rated their parent and ideal partner more similarly than did men and women who perceived their relationship to be of low quality. A tendency for participants with perceived high-quality relationships to idealize their opposite-sex parents (i.e., rate them more positively than the typical opposite-sex parent) approached significance. Women who perceived high-quality relationships with their fathers were the only group to view their opposite-sex parent more positively than the typical opposite-sex parent and the ideal partner.

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Effects of Orientation and Training on Cognitive Maps
John R. Helleberg, University of Nebraska at Kearney

ABSTRACT: Two experiments studied orientation effects on cognitive mapping. Experiment 1 used a 4 x 3 within-subjects factorial design, with 12 participants, following the procedure of Levine, Jankovic, and Palij (1982). Participants were taught a map by finger tracing, then were tested on either an unaltered map, a 180°-rotated version, or an unaltered version viewed from a new 180º perspective. Results replicated the Levine et al. data, but the map-rotation condition showed more errors on reverse than forward-movement types. Experiment 2, with 36 participants, added a pre/posttest, training period, and modified procedure. Experiment 1 was replicated, and the modified procedure improved performance when participants rotated the map. Training was ineffective, but some practice improvements on the posttest were found. The present studies' anomaly with reverse-movement types offers only limited support for Levine et al.'s principle of equiavailability.

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Induced Aggressive Mood and Explicit Memory
Michael J. Lang, John Carroll University

ABSTRACT: The purpose of these 2 studies is to examine whether an aggressive mood (induced by playing a violent video game) biases a person's recall of aggressive and nonaggressive words. Study 1 examined the effects that violent video games have on the player and observer. Study 2 examined the effects of an induced aggressive mood on a person's recall of a list of aggressive and nonaggressive words. In both studies, participants were randomly assigned to play a violent video game, which consisted of fighting a computer opponent using martial arts, or to play a nonviolent video game, which involved racing a high-performance car on a racetrack. Overall, in Study 1, the participants who were exposed to the violent video game had a greater feeling of aggression than the participants who were exposed to the nonviolent video game. Overall, in Study 2, the participants recalled significantly more aggressive words than nonaggressive words, but participants who played the violent video game did not recall significantly more aggressive words than those who played the nonviolent video game.

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Evaluating Parental Stress and Parental Disciplinary Styles as Predictors
of Child Maladaptive Behavior

Craig I. Springer, New York University

ABSTRACT: This study examined the relation between parental disciplinary styles, parental stress, and child behavior. Seventy-seven mothers and their children, ages 4 through 12, were recruited from Coney Island Hospital's outpatient pediatric clinic in New York City. Mothers were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1981), the Styles of Parental Discipline Scale (SPDS; Eisman, 1995), and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI; Abidin, 1995). Children were administered selected cards of the Holtzman Inkblot Test (HIT; Holtzman, Thorpe, Swartz, & Heron, 1976) scored for hostility and anxiety and the Springer Child Aggression Inventory (SCAI; Springer, 1996). The author sought to determine whether (a) parental disciplinary styles are related to child behavior, (b) parental disciplinary styles are related to parental stressors, and (c) parental stress levels are related to child behavior. Results indicate that authoritarian and permissive disciplinary styles are related to child maladaptive behaviors; parental stress was associated with permissive disciplinary style and with internal as well as external behavioral problems. Parental stress was not found to be associated with authoritarian disciplinary style.

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Attitudes Concerning Religion: Relationships Among Fundamentalism, Authoritarianism, Racism, and Homosexual Prejudice
Brian R. Laythe, Indiana University Southeast

ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the relations among fundamentalism, authoritarianism, homosexual bias, and racist attitudes. Thirty men and 90 women from a small midwestern university participated. Results indicated a positive correlation among the 4 bias variables: fundamentalism, authoritarianism, homosexual discrimination, and racism. Fundamentalism was positively correlated with authoritarianism, which in turn was positively correlated with racism and homosexual prejudice. ANOVAs of sex and religious denomination (conservative and moderate) found sex nonsignificant with regard to the 4 bias variables. Significant differences of denominational category were found for authoritarianism and homosexual prejudice within the conservative denominational category. Religious self-ratings and church attendance were positively correlated with all bias variables except racism. Results support the previous research of the fundamentalism-authoritarianism-racism relationship. Authoritarian tendency and selectivity bias are discussed as possible explanations for these results.

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Publishing in the Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research:
A Faculty Mentor's Guide

Kirsten L. Rewey, St. Mary’s University of Minnesota; Stephen F. Davis,
Emporia State University

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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