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Psi Chi Journal Fall 2000

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 5.3 | Fall 2000

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Personality Disorders and Relationship Affect and Attachment
Dwayne R. Crites and William E. Snell, Jr., Southeast Missouri State University

ABSTRACT: Although researchers have focused considerable attention on intimacy, professionals know relatively little about how personality disorder symptomatology affects relational affect and attachment. To better understand these issues, we designed the present research to determine whether personality disorder symptomatology would be associated with university students' reports of (a) their relationship affect (i.e., relational-satisfaction, relational-depression, relational-anxiety, and relational-esteem) and (b) their relationship attachment tendencies (i.e., secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types of romantic attachment). The results indicated that personality disorder symptomatology was positively associated with dysphoric relationship affect and insecure types of attachment, but negatively associated with nondysphoric relationship affect and the secure type of attachment. The discussion focuses on future research related to these findings.

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Different Bimodal Multimedia Presentations Affect Students'
Multiple-Choice Test Scores

Simonne Pollini and Richard S. Velayo, Pace University

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of different types of bimodal presentations on learning. We randomly assigned participants to 1 of 3 presentation modalities: audiovisual, audio-textual, or visual-textual. Each participant completed a computer tutorial about the midbrain and the hindbrain. Subsequently, we administered a 42-item memory test to the participants. The multiple-choice test consisted of 28 verbal questions derived from the textual information and 14 visual questions derived from the pictorial information. There was a significant mean difference among the total visual test scores of participants assigned to the visual-textual modality and those assigned to the audiovisual or audio-textual modalities. However, there was no significant difference among the 3 bimodalities on total score in the verbal section of the memory test. Continued study is needed to examine further the effect of each bimodality as a predictor of actual test performance.

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Unique Invulnerability Measurement in Skydivers: Scale Validation
Dana Bodner, C. D. Cochran, and Toni L. Blum, Stetson University

ABSTRACT: This study validated 2 recently developed unique invulnerability scales and compared the levels of unique invulnerability between a high-risk-taking group of 40 skydivers and a control group of 40 college students. Whereas the General Unique Invulnerability Scale (GUI; Cochran & Farson, 1998) asked participants to consider the probability of experiencing negative life events themselves, the Comparison Unique Invulnerability Scale (CUI; Cochran & Farson, 1998) required participants to compare the likelihood of these experiences occurring to themselves versus the likelihood of these experiences occurring to others. Skydivers had significantly higher GUI scores than did students. Scores on the CUI were negatively correlated with the GUI. Comparisons of GUI and CUI scores with other measures are discussed for validity purposes.

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Aerobic Exercise's Effects on General Well-Being and Anxiety
Chad A. Watts and Albert J. Boquet, University of Central Oklahoma

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on peoples' general well-being and level of anxiety. A group of 54 and a group of 53 sedentary people participated in this study. An activity questionnaire identified exercisers and sedentary participants. The exercise group completed 60 min of an aerobic activity and the sedentary group completed a 60-min lecture control class. Following the groups' activity, all participants completed a demographic and activity questionnaire, the state portion of the Spielberger's State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983), and the General Well-Being Schedule (National Center for Health Statistics, 1973. A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the groups differed significantly. The exercise group reported higher feelings of general well-being. The present findings support the capacity of aerobic exercise to positively enhance global quality of life.

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The Relation Between Trait Anxiety and Future Anxiety Regarding Y2K
Thomas B. Chapin, Fort Hays State University

ABSTRACT: I used a standard questionnaire of trait anxiety and a new questionnaire of future anxiety regarding Y2K to measure anxiety in college students. Participant variables (sex and major) were also investigated. The results indicated a significant correlation between Y2K anxiety and trait anxiety. A significant sex difference on the level of trait anxiety and Y2K anxiety was also found. Results also showed a significant difference between science and technology majors and other majors on trait anxiety and Y2K anxiety. Discussion is presented concerning the reasons for these differences. The new Y2K anxiety questionnaire is suggested as a valid measure of future anxiety regarding the coming millennium.

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Smokers' Perceived Self-Exemption From Health Risks
Lee J. Markowitz, Hamilton College

ABSTRACT: Ninety-seven nonsmokers and 22 smokers completed a 12-item questionnaire designed to assess perceived self-exemption from health risks. Perceived self-exemption was defined as having knowledge of risks, but not applying them to oneself. It was hypothesized that smokers would exhibit more perceived self-exemption than nonsmokers from smoking and nonsmoking health risks. The results supported this hypothesis. Post hoc analysis revealed that men exhibited greater perceived self-exemption than women did. Whereas previous research has examined smokers' perceived self-exemption from smoking health risks, the present study found that smokers' perceived self-exemption extends also to nonsmoking health risks. The role of cognitive dissonance in an injurious cycle involving smokers' beliefs and behaviors is discussed.

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"Is This REALLY APA Format?": A Presubmission Checklist
for the Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research

Kirsten L. Rewey, St. Mary’s University of Minnesota;
John A. Juve, Alyson Weiser, and Stephen F. Davis, Emporia State University


ABSTRACT: At the 2000 meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association we presented a poster detailing the most common formatting errors among submissions to the Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research (Juve, Weiser, Kennedy, Davis, & Rewey, 2000). To summarize, we reviewed 69 papers submitted to the Psi Chi Journal and identified all deviations (but not repetitions of deviations) from current standards set in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (PM; APA, 1994). Juve et al. (2000) reported 780 total errors, an average of 11.3 deviations from the PM per manuscript. In addition, we concluded that the majority of errors were mechanical problems that could be easily corrected. The purpose of the present editorial is to provide student authors and faculty advisors with a checklist of common formatting errors. Using the checklist during careful and deliberate proofreading of manuscripts prior to submission to the Psi Chi Journal should eliminate many of the formatting difficulties student authors encounter during the submission process...

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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