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Psi Chi Journal Fall 2010

PSI CHI Journal of Psychological Research
Volume 15.3 | Fall 2010

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Exploring Factors Contributing to Women’s Nontraditional Career Aspirations
Lori Bona, Allison Kelly, and Megan Jung, St. Catherine University

ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine if women aspiring to enter traditional, or femaledominated, careers (e.g., nursing, social work, etc.) versus male-dominated careers (e.g., science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, etc.) would differ on 10 factors: interest and confidence in math and science, overall academic confidence, traditional gender role attitudes, importance of having a job with a flexible work schedule for family, influence of a mentor, parental modeling of traditional gender roles, and attachment to parents. A survey exploring these factors was distributed to 141 college women. Results indicated that women who were pursuing careers in a male-dominated field had significantly higher confidence and interest in math and science and also had parents who modeled less-traditional gender roles than women who were aspiring to enter traditional gender careers. However, because there were many factors which did not yield significant differences among the two career groups, future research should explore other influences, such as the learning environment, on women’s career choices.

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Body Image Perceptions: Do Gender Differences Exist?
Maggie A. Brennan, Christopher E. Lalonde, and Jody L. Bain, University of Victoria

ABSTRACT: Despite the large volume of research on body image, few studies have directly compared body image perceptions of men and women. Do men and women experience body image dissatisfaction in the same ways? Do similar factors predict negative body image perceptions in men and women? Is body image dissatisfaction associated with the same consequences regardless of gender? This study investigated these questions. One hundred ninety-seven undergraduate students completed an online survey that assessed their body image experiences and self-perceptions (i.e., body esteem, body mass index, self-esteem, sociocultural and situational factors, and body image perceptions in sexual contexts). Data analysis compared the responses of male and female participants. Several gender differences were found; body dissatisfaction was more common and felt more strongly in women, yet men were also clearly affected by body dissatisfaction.

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Online Faculty Rating Sites: Examining How Students Perceive and Use RateMyProfessors.com
Nicole M. Landry and Katelyn E. Kurkul, Stonehill College

ABSTRACT: We surveyed 550 students to examine which rating categories on RateMyProfessors. com (2010), an online faculty rating site, they found to be most important when selecting a professor. We hypothesized that students would trust RateMyProfessors. com and choose Easiness as the most important category. Results indicated that students did tend to trust RateMyProfessors.com ratings. Furthermore, they reported that Quality, Helpfulness, and Clarity are more important categories than Easiness and Hotness. In addition, analyses revealed that men are more likely to consider Hotness when selecting a professor than women. The findings from this study shed light on how online faculty rating sites may influence students’ selection of professors.

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Can Health Behaviors and Motives Predict College Students’ Self-Esteem?
Chelsea R. Fielder-Jenks, Texas State University–San Marcos

ABSTRACT: A sample of 268 college students completed a 98-item questionnaire that surveyed their knowledge of eating and exercise recommendations, their eating and exercise motives and behaviors, and their self-esteem. A regression analysis using a forward method of entry was used to investigate whether certain food choice motives, exercise motives, knowledge of diet and physical activity recommendations, and healthy eating and physical activity behaviors can predict college students’ self-esteem. The first variable to enter the model and significantly increase the amount of variance explained was the food motive of mood (β = 0.23; R2 change = 0.07; F(1, 209) = 13.90, p < .001). The food motive of health entered next and significantly increased the amount of variance explained (β = -0.21; R2 change = 0.07; F(2, 208) = 16.22, p < .001). The final three variables to enter and significantly increase the amount of variance explained were the following: the exercise motive of health (β = -0.23; R2 change = 0.02; F(3, 207) = 12.89, p < .001); the exercise motive of attractiveness (β = 0.22; R2 change = 0.03; F(4, 206) = 12.14, p < .001); and the food motive of ethical concern (β = 0.16; R2 change = 0.02; F(5, 205) = 11.07, p < .001). No other variables significantly explained additional variance in self-esteem. These findings suggest that for college students, certain food and exercise motives are related to self-esteem. The potential impact of college students’ health-related motives and behaviors on self-esteem may be beneficial in developing interventions related to health and self-esteem.  

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Effects of Normalization on Self-Esteem and Loneliness in Juvenile Sex Offenders
Colleen E. Harden, Knox College

ABSTRACT: I examined the effect of exposure to normalizing data on the self-attitudes of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs). I hypothesized that self-esteem levels would rise whereas loneliness levels would drop in a sample of male JSOs (n = 17; age range = 14- 20) after completion of a normalizing intervention. Participants’ self-esteem and loneliness was evaluated pre- and postintervention. Results showed a significant increase in self-esteem and a significant decrease in loneliness, suggesting that the use of normalizing interventions in sex-offense-specific treatment with JSOs may help facilitate group therapy and increase self-esteem while decreasing loneliness in an efficient manner.

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Sexual Victimization in Close Relationships and Self-Blame Among College Women
Pamela E. May, State University of New York, College at Geneseo

ABSTRACT: Although past studies of self-blame for sexual victimization have focused on self-blame for rape, women may blame themselves for a range of victimization experiences perpetrated within close relationships. In Study 1, undergraduate women (N = 159) provided self-reports of sexual victimization from adolescence through college and self-blame for unwanted sexual experiences. Results showed that past sexual perpetration by friends and partners predicted greater self-blame than perpetration by more distant acquaintances. In Study 2, first-year female undergraduates (N = 39) completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of an academic year. Women who reported sexual perpetration by a friend or partner showed increased self-blame at the end of the year. Victimization in close relationships is prevalent and fosters self-blame.

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Chocolate and Cheese: Their Effects on Mood
Valerie Grose, Washburn University

ABSTRACT: Researchers have related several food factors to an effect on mood, most notably sweet flavor, carbohydrates, fat, and the chemical compounds in chocolate. The purpose of this study was to parse these different characteristics in select foods to determine which has the pivotal effect on mood. Participants (N = 105) consumed chocolate (white, milk, or dark) or cheese and completed a preconsumption and postconsumption Positive and Negative Affect Schedule mood test. Participants showed a general decline in positive affect. Women who ate dark chocolate had a significant rise in negative affect. Women who ate cheese experienced a decrease in negative affect.

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The Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research educates, supports, and promotes professional development, and disseminates psychological science. Only original, empirical manuscripts that make a contribution to psychological knowledge are published. Authors are Psi Chi members at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty level.

 

 

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