Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology, was officially founded at its first national meeting on September 4, 1929, which occurred during the Ninth International Congress of Psychology held at Yale University.1 Although European psychologists had been organizing international congresses of psychology for 40 years, this was the first to be convened in the United States. The international context of its establishment notwithstanding, Psi Chi's chapters2 are located solely at U.S. colleges and universities, and there has been only limited contact or interaction with international psychology or the psychologists of other nations, although many Psi Chi members have been, and continue to be, international students studying in this country. A notable exception occurred when former Psi Chi president Roger Russell designated the 1962-63 academic year as Psi Chi's International Year, and a wide range of international activities were sponsored during that period (Newman, 1998). Psi Chi's attention to international concerns waned considerably in the following years until the presidency of Charles Spielberger sparked new interest (see Newman, 1998, for an overview of Psi Chi's international activities). During the past few years, new seeds have been planted which may grow into further international ventures for Psi Chi. Two recent Psi Chi presidents, Slater Newman and Harold Takooshian, have strong interests in promoting a more international perspective.3 Moreover, the celebration commemorating the 70th anniversary of Psi Chi, held at Yale University in September 1999,4 provided an opportunity to reflect both on Psi Chi's beginning at an international congress and also on the rapidly changing world, which calls for a more global perspective for both persons and organizations. To aid Psi Chi members in gaining this perspective, the present report organizes and summarizes the results of a project to compile a central database that will preserve the history and development of four major international associations responsible for promoting an international perspective in psychology.
From its beginning in 1879, modern scientific psychology was international. Wilhelm Wundt, who established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, attracted some of the greatest minds, not only from other European countries, but also from North America and Asia. Moreover, Wundt devoted much of the second half of his professional career to his 10-volume magnum opus, Volkerpsychologie (or "Folk Psychology"), which in today's English might be called a psychology of culture. These volumes have yet to be fully translated into English but will likely garner increased attention as the 100th anniversary of the publication of the first volume arrives in the year 2000. Even among German-speaking psychologists, Wundt's Volkerpsychologie received much less attention than his well-known experimental psychology.
Almost from the beginning, psychology in Europe was to some extent international. The first International Congress of Psychology, organized by Jean Charcot, convened in Paris in 1889 only 10 years after the establishment of Wundt's laboratory. Additional international congresses of psychology were held at irregular intervals in Europe during the next 40 years. As noted above, the first international congress of psychology convened in North America was the site of the founding of Psi Chi in 1929 at Yale University.
From its beginning the American culture has been somewhat isolationist and apathetic, even sometimes contemptuous of the peoples of other countries. Having "escaped" from the net of problems and almost continuous warfare that had plagued European countries for generations, most Americans felt reluctant to become involved in international affairs. For example, George Washington, the first President of the United States, counseled against foreign entanglements. Thomas Jefferson, the third President, wrote disparagingly about foreign involvement and counseled against American students' pursuing education abroad. For example, in a letter to a young American interested in study in Europe, he wrote, "Let us view the disadvantages of sending a youth to Europe. To enumerate them all would require a volume. . . . It appears to me . . . that an American, coming to Europe for education, loses in his knowledge, in his morals, in his health, in his habits, and in his happiness. . . . the consequences of foreign education are alarming to me as an American" (Jefferson, 1785, cited in Fraser and Brickman, 1968, p. 27). In this century, Theodore Roosevelt, writing about Americans who lived in France or England, was also very critical, believing that Americans who chose to live in Europe were rejecting their native land: He wrote, "The American who becomes a second-rate Englishman or Frenchman is a silly and undesirable citizen" (Zwerdling, 1993, p. 126).
There have been exceptions among American leaders. Woodrow Wilson, the 28th President, for example, was an internationalist, but by and large much of American culture has cared little and known less about the people of other nations. Historically, that has been a not unreasonable position for a nation occupying a large continent and separated by two oceans from much of the rest of the world. It has become a much less viable perspective with today's technological advances and greater interconnectedness (e.g., mass migration, mobility, economic interdependence).
Although information on national psychology associations around the world is available (e.g., Gilgen & Gilgen, 1987; Sexton & Hogan, 1992; Sexton & Misiak, 1976), there has previously been no single source providing information about the major international psychology organizations. With few exceptions (Davis, 1996, in press; Merenda, 1995; Rosenzweig & Holtzman, 1993), the archival material about international psychology organizations has not been widely accessible through libraries and publications. Instead, much of the information has been maintained by volunteer leaders, and thus changes hands as leadership changes.
In the current project, historical and current information was compiled about the activities of the four major organizations that promote an international perspective in psychology. This information is maintained in a central database housed in the Center for International Psychology at Southwest Texas State University (SWT). The database will be available for the use of the community of international psychologists, scholars, and students.
The major international organizations in psychology that are the subject of this article are the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP), the International Council of Psychologists (ICP), the International Association for Cross- Cultural Psychology (IACCP), and the International Union of Psychological Sciences (IUPsyS). For each of the four organizations, the following sections provide a summary of its founding and development, organizational governance and structure, officers, conventions and meetings, publications, and members.
International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP)
Founding and Development
The oldest international organization in psychology, the International Association of Applied Psychology traces its foundation to 1920 when its organizers discussed it at the International Congress of Applied Psychology in Geneva, Switzerland; it was formally organized in 1921 (Merenda, 1992, 1995). In its early years IAAP was dominated by French-speaking psychologists, and not until 1953 did a non - French-speaker achieve the position of president.
Organizational Governance and Structure
The constitution of IAAP places the executive and administrative powers of the association in the Executive Committee, which consists of the executive officers and an additional 53 members (Merenda, 1992). Prior to 1990 the terms of office were variable. Since 1990, the officers have served 4-year terms and the Executive Committee members have served 8-year terms (Merenda, 1995).
IAAP offers 14 divisions that are organized according to various fields of psychology. In addition, six standing committees and four task forces help carry out the work of the association.
In the early years, officers of the IAAP served terms of varying length, with the first president remaining in office more than 20 years. In addition, World War II interrupted the succession of officers between 1941 and 1947. In 1986, the office of president-elect replaced the office of vice president. In 1990 the term of office for president was set at 4 years and the duties of the secretary-treasurer were separated and assigned to the new offices of secretary-general and treasurer. The current president is Charles Spielberger, an internationally respected researcher who has also served as president of the American Psychological Association, of the International Council of Psychologists, and of Psi Chi. Professor Spielberger continues to be a strong supporter of Psi Chi.
Conventions and Meetings
International congresses of IAAP began in 1920 and subsequently were held on an irregular basis. As a result of World War II, none was held during the period between 1934 and 1949. The first 17 congresses were held in Europe, and not until 1974 did IAAP convene its first non-European congress. This congress, the 18th, was held in Montreal, Canada. Beginning in 1974, IAAP congresses have been scheduled every 4 years. The next two non-European congresses were the 21st, held in Jerusalem, Israel, in 1986, and the 22nd in Kyoto, Japan, in 1990. The first IAAP congress held in the United States was the 24th, convened in San Francisco in August 1998 in conjunction with the annual convention of the American Psychological Association.
IAAP publishes the quarterly journal Applied Psychology: An International Review. A membership directory was published by IAAP in 1992, and several IAAP divisions publish newsletters. IAAP also produces programs for its conventions, and the proceedings of the first 13 congresses have been republished recently by Routledge-Thoemmes Press, with Horst Grundlach of the University of Passau, Germany, serving as editor and writing the introduction.
The constitution of IAAP specifies four classes of individual membership. These are full member, associate member, honorary member, and student member. Full membership requires eligibility for membership in one's national or regional psychological societies or associations, sponsorship by two full members of IAAP, and approval by the Executive Committee. Associate membership requires a current practice in one of the fields of applied psychology or a related domain, nomination by the president of one of IAAP's divisions, and approval by the Executive Committee. Student members must be graduate students in psychology (certified by their respective department chair) and must obtain sponsorship by one full member of IAAP and approval by the Executive Committee.
[The address for the IAAP website is www.iaapsy.org.]
International Council of Psychologists (ICP)
Founding and Development
The International Council of Psychologists traces its founding back to 1941 when a group of women psychologists in the United States organized the National Council of Women Psychologists (NCWP) to contribute to the American war effort during World War II. NCWP continued to function through 1946 but discussed the possibility of disbanding since the war had ended. Instead, because of interest from Canadian psychologists, it reorganized as the International Council of Women Psychologists and extended invitations of membership to women psychologists from other countries. By 1959, a number of male psychologists were also showing interest and the word "women" was dropped from the title (Portenier, n.d.). It has been functioning as the International Council of Psychologists since 1960 and was incorporated under that name in 1962 (Merenda, 1965).
Organizational Governance and Structure
The Articles of Incorporation, Bylaws, and Rules of the Board of ICP place the executive and administrative powers and responsibilities in the officers and members-at-large of the Board of Directors and in the secretary-general. The meetings of the Board of Directors are scheduled annually to occur on the first, second, and last days of the annual convention. There are 12 members-at-large of the Board of Directors, four of which are elected by the membership each year to serve 3-year terms.
Further organizational structure is provided by ICP's nine standing committees, six non-standing committees, and six committees for professional concerns. In addition, ICP sponsors nine representatives to the United Nations and 23 liaison correspondents. Interest groups in nine different fields of psychology are also provided for members to pursue collaboration and work in specific areas.
The offices of president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer were used until 1965 when the office of vice-president was changed to president-elect. From 1942 through 1975 presidents served 2-year terms. Beginning in 1975, they have served 1-year terms preceded by 1 year as president-elect. Two of the presidents of ICP, Charles Spielberger, noted above, and Florence Denmark, also served as president of both the American Psychological Association and Psi Chi. Both continue to be strong supporters of Psi Chi. A number of other presidents of ICP have also been presidents of Psi Chi. These include Florence Goodenough (ICP, 1942-43; Psi Chi, 1945-48), Lillian G. Portenier (Psi Chi, 1949-52; ICP, 1951-52), and Allan G. Barclay (Psi Chi, 1970-74; ICP, 1977-78).
Conventions and Meetings
Several small meetings were held for the purpose of organizing the National Council of Women Psychologists from late 1941 through 1947. The early annual meetings of the International Council of Women Psychologists (beginning in 1959, the International Council of Psychologists) were held in conjunction with the annual meetings of the American Psychological Association.
The first full membership meeting outside the United States was arranged by Victor Sanua, then president-elect. It was held in Tel Aviv, Israel, in August 1970. For several years, between 1969 and 1976, ICP members attended sessions sponsored jointly by APA and ICP. The year 1976 marked a genuine change in this practice. Lisette Fanchon, president-elect, planned the ICP convention in Paris, immediately prior to the International Congress of Psychology at the Sorbonne (Cautley, 1992). In 1976, the Board also decided to hold the annual conventions outside North America every even-numbered year. That pattern has been followed to date (with a few exceptions), and meetings are held near the location and date of one of the quadrennial congresses--either the International Congress of Psychology (held by IUPsyS) or the International Congress of Applied Psychology (held by IAAP).
Publication of the International Psychologist began in 1966 and has continued on a quarterly cycle for much of the history of ICP. Before that, the Newsletter was published from 1942 through 1967. Occasional publications have been issued under the title International Understanding. From 1995 through 1997, ICP published the quarterly journal World Psychology. Membership directories were published in 1948, 1962, 1966 (Portenier, n.d.), 1973, 1976, 1977 Supplement, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, and 1994 (Davis, 1995). In addition, ICP prints the programs of each annual convention and, from time to time, publishes the proceedings, which contain selected presentations from the conventions. Finally, ICP has published commemorative volumes: a pamphlet for its 10th anniversary, a booklet for the 25th, and a book for the 50th anniversary.
The Bylaws and the Certificate of Incorporation of ICP specify five classes of membership: member, life member, associate, professional affiliate, and student affiliate. Full members must be psychologists who are members or eligible for membership in a national psychological association affiliated with the IUPsyS and who have studied or worked professionally in psychology for at least 2 years prior to applying for membership. In addition, one or two leaders of ICP must endorse applicants. Associate membership is offered for those who either don't meet the 2-year work requirement or who are eligible in their respective national psychological association for a lower class of membership. Professional affiliates are persons who are active in a profession allied with psychology and who are interested in advancing ICP's goals. Student members must be undergraduate or graduate students in psychology or a related field and must provide the name and address of both a professor in their major and their institution as well as information concerning their anticipated date of graduation.
[The address for the ICP website is http://icpsych.tripod.com.]
International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP)
Founding and Development
The International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology was established on March 1, 1972, and held its first meeting in August 1972 in Hong Kong (IACCP, 1993; Lonner, 1994).
Organizational Governance and Structure
The IACCP has officers and regional representatives. The executive and administrative powers and responsibilities of the IACCP are vested in the Executive Council, which is comprised of the officers, the regional representatives, the chair of the Publications Committee, and the editor of the Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin. The officers and regional representatives are elected by the membership. Regional representatives are elected from Europe (2), East Asia (1), South Asia (1), Southeast Asia (1), Insular Pacific (1), North America (2), Central and South America (1), Central and South Africa (1), North Africa and the Middle East (1), and as special representatives-at-large (1-3).
The officers of IACCP are elected on a regular cycle to serve 2-year terms. The offices are president, president-elect, past president, secretary-general, deputy secretary-general, and treasurer.
Conventions and Meetings
Beginning with the first meeting in August 1972 in Hong Kong, the IACCP has held conventions in various countries, mostly outside North America, in even-numbered years. The IACCP also holds smaller regional meetings from time to time in odd-numbered years.
The first IACCP convention held in the United States was convened in 1998 in Bellingham, Washington, on the campus of Western Washington University at which Walter J. Lonner, the founding editor of IACCP's Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, is professor of psychology.5 The convention in Bellingham commemorated the 25th anniversary of the founding of the IACCP.
The primary publication of IACCP is the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It began in 1970 as a quarterly publication and continued so until 1995, when it changed to a publication schedule of six issues per year. IACCP also publishes a quarterly newsletter titled the Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin as well as convention programs and the proceedings of conventions and some regional meetings. Membership directories are published from time to time.
The constitution of the IACCP specifies three categories of members: honorary fellows, members, and student members. Honorary members are individuals who have made distinguished contributions to cross-cultural psychology and to the IACCP, who are nominated by the Standing Committee on Awards, and who are approved by the Executive Council. Members are individuals who have major academic qualifications in psychology or related disciplines and who show evidence of interest in cross-cultural psychology. Student members are undergraduate and graduate students who are studying or carrying out research in psychology or a related discipline (IACCP, 1993; Keats, 1993).
[The address for the IACCP website is www.iaccp.org.]
International Union of Psychological Sciences (IUPsyS)
Founding and Development
Although international congresses have been convened almost since the beginning of psychology as a modern science, the International Union of Psychological Sciences was formally established only in 1951. This occurred at the 13th International Congress of Psychology at Stockholm, Sweden, on July 17, 1951. Differing from the other three international organizations that admit individual psychologists as members, the IUPsyS is an organization composed of national psychological associations, each country having representation based on the number of psychologists in its national association. There were 20 countries represented in the original union. Currently, the IUPsyS reports a membership of 64 national members.
Organizational Governance and Structure
Executive and administrative powers and responsibilities are vested in the officers and the Executive Committee. Members of the three standing committees are chosen by the Executive Committee from among its members. The Assembly, which is the organization's legislative body and is made up of either one or two delegates from each national member organization, holds formal meetings in conjunction with the international congresses.
The officers consist of a president and two vice-presidents elected by the Assembly of Delegates at their business meetings held every 4 years during the International Congress of Psychology, plus a secretary-general, deputy secretary-general, and treasurer who are appointed by the Executive Committee. Officers normally serve 4-year terms and, with the exception of the president and vice-president, can be reelected for one additional 4-year term. The office of past president was introduced in 1988.
Although the IUPsyS was formally established only in 1951, international congresses of psychology have been held since 1889 and form a continuous progression with the congresses sponsored by the IUPsyS. Since 1972, the International Congresses of Psychology have been held at 4-year intervals.
Publications of the IUPsyS include the Proceedings of the International Congresses of Psychology, the International Journal of Psychology, several editions of the International Directory of Psychologists, and The IUPsyS International Directory: Major Research Institutes and Departments of Psychology. An International Handbook of Psychological Science is scheduled for publication in 2000.
Unlike the previous three associations which have individual psychologists as members, the IUPsyS has national members comprised of the national societies of psychology from various countries around the world. IUPsyS began in 1951 with 20 national members (Rosenzweig & Holtzman, 1993) and now reports 64 national societies of psychology as members (Rosenzweig, 1999).
[The address for the IUPsyS website is www.iupsys.org.]
Comparison of IAAP, ICP, IACCP, and IUPsyS
Individuals make up the membership of the first three associations. Although membership numbers can vary substantially from year to year and accurate records on membership are sometimes difficult to obtain, recent membership directories and other sources put the approximate membership of IAAP at 2,000, of ICP at 1,460, and of IACCP at 800. IAAP lists members from 94 different countries, ICP from 80 countries, and IACCP from 68 countries. IUPsyS lists national societies of 64 countries as members. Together the four associations represent psychologist members from more than 100 countries ranging from Albania to Zimbabwe.
Journals, newsletters, membership directories, convention programs and proceedings, and other occasional publications keep members and other subscribers informed of the official actions of the associations as well as of professional activities of the members. These publications also provide an archival record of the history, growth, and development of the organizations. The most widely available of these is the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Many university libraries also contain the International Journal of Psychology and Applied Psychology: An International Review.
International meetings of psychology have been convened since 1889. The oldest and largest of these, the International Congresses of Psychology and the International Congresses of Applied Psychology, began in Europe and ventured beyond Europe only recently. They each meet quadrennially and now coordinate their congresses so that one or the other meets every even-numbered year. IAAP met in San Francisco in 1998, IUPsyS will meet in Stockholm in late July 2000, IAAP in Singapore in 2002, and IUPsyS in Beijing in 2004. The early annual meetings of ICP were held in conjunction with the conventions of the American Psychological Association. The biennial meetings of IACCP, begun in 1972, have convened in various locations in Europe, Asia, Canada, Mexico, Australia, and the U.S., and will be held this year in Pultusk, Poland. IACCP's regional conferences have met in similarly varied locations, including three meetings in Africa.
Individuals now entering the field of psychology, as are many Psi Chi members, can benefit from learning about the major international organizations that promote a world perspective for psychology. Just as dominance in psychology moved from Europe to North America during the early part of the 20th century, there are clear trends suggesting that American dominance is likely to become less pronounced in the early years of the 21st century. One of these trends is the geographic extension of each of the four international organizations into additional countries each year. Also, a recent study (Bauserman, 1997) indicated that, between 1975 and 1994, the proportion of publications indexed in PsycLit originating from institutions outside the United States increased from 30.5% to 46.1%. Psychology is growing faster outside the United States than inside.
With this expansion there has been much overlap, and we see a growing tendency toward coordination of convention scheduling, liaison activities, and information sharing among the organizations. Thus, in order to have the most satisfying careers, students entering the field will find it important to observe the changes and be responsive to them.
Getting to know individuals from other countries is one of the greatest satisfactions derived from participating in psychology on an international level. Each of the four organizations offers either special student membership rates or discounts on publications.
A subtle but important additional benefit of participating in international psychology and developing friendships with people from other countries is that the experience broadens one's cognitive categories. Those of us who study social psychology have learned that we often think of people as "in group" and "out group." We can now enlarge the category of "in group" and recognize that the people of the entire world can be our colleagues. Psi Chi was born at an international congress of psychology; there has never been a better time for Psi Chi to expand upon that heritage.
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1 For more information about Psi Chi's founding, see "The Founding of Psi Chi at the Ninth International Congress of Psychology, 1929" by John D. Hogan, in the Winter 2000 issue of Eye on Psi Chi, pp. 11-13.
2 With more than 950 local chapters located at senior colleges and universities, Psi Chi has more chapters than any other honor society in the world.
3 Dr. Newman writes the regular column, "International Notes," for Eye on Psi Chi (see page 12-13 of this issue). Dr. Takooshian has been active in the affairs of APA's Division 52 (International Psychology) since its inception.
4 For a complete account of Psi Chi's 70th anniversary celebration, see "Convocation at Yale Marks Psi Chi's 70th Anniversary" by Harold Takooshian in the Winter 2000 issue of Eye on Psi Chi, p. 10.
5 See Dr. Lonner's article, "On the Growth and Continuing Importance of Cross-Cultural Psychology," on pp. 22-26 of this issue of Eye on Psi Chi.Author note. This report is based on research supported by a Faculty Advisor Grant from Psi Chi. A shorter version of this report was presented at the first annual SWT Psi Chi Student Conference at Southwest Texas State University in September 1999.
I thank Slater Newman and Harold Takooshian for thoughtful and valuable comments and suggestions on an earlier draft of this manuscript.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to: John M. Davis, Department of Psychology, Southwest Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666.