|Psi Chi Journal Fall 2009|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 14.3 | Fall 2009
Isabella F. Dachs and Rhett Diessner, Lewis-Clark State College
ABSTRACT: The Engagement with Beauty Scale (EBS) was designed using the philosophical works of Kant (1790/1987), Hegel (c. 1835/1993), and Aquinas (c. 1260/1947), as well as the psychological work of Haidt and Kilter (2004). The scale has construct, concurrent, and predictive validity as well as internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of .90 for total score with an American sample (Diessner, Solom, Frost, Parsons, & Davidson, 2008). In the study reported here, the EBS was translated into German and administered to a sample of Germans living in southern Germany, revealing a Cronbach’s alpha of .94 for total score (validity was not formally assessed). Discussion centers on comparing the German sample’s scores on the natural beauty, artistic beauty, and moral beauty subscales of the EBS with the American sample’s scores.
Jaime F. Kaplan, Towson University
ABSTRACT: The present study investigated body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, perfectionism, and asceticism in a sample of recreational ballet students and preprofessional ballet students. We questioned whether the differences between the two groups in weight pressures would be reflected in how students perceived themselves. Fifty-five ballet students (23 recreational and 32 preprofessional) completed the Body Image Silhouettes subscale of the Kids Eating Disorder Survey, the Eating Disorder Inventory-3, and a demographics questionnaire. Results indicate the recreational ballet students did not differ significantly from the preprofessional ballet students. Both groups of dancers reported an ideal ballet body image that was significantly smaller than their ideal body image. Recreational ballet students, however, reported a significantly larger perceived body image than preprofessional ballet students.
Christine Karver, University of New Mexico; Terri Teshiba, Mind Research Network; Patrick Cordova, New Mexico VA Health Care System Research Service; John Adair, Kathleen Haaland, and Joseph Sadek, University of New Mexico
ABSTRACT: Questionnaire-based methods were used to assess dementia symptoms. We sought to validate the Functional Impact Assessment (FIA), a performance-based assessment, by demonstrating that it is not redundant with questionnaire-based methods. We compared the FIA scores of dementia patients (n = 16) to Dementia Deficits Scale (DDS; Snow et al., 2004) responses. A significant difference was found between the patients and controls on FIA performance, t(28) = 6.76, p < .001. The patients reported fewer functioning problems than their informants, U = 53.50; p = .004. The correlations between the FIA and the DDS informant and patient reports were nonsignificant. The FIA is sensitive to dementia and identifies an aspect of functioning not detected by questionnaire-based methods.
The Effect of Instructional Method on Second Language Acquisition: An Examination of Some Contributing Factors
Laura M. Morett, Washington College
ABSTRACT: A mini-lesson in Spanish vocabulary was taught to participants unfamiliar with the language using stimuli representative of one of two instructional methodologies, the grammar-translation approach or the communicative approach. Participants taught using the communicative approach recalled significantly more Spanish vocabulary words than those assigned to an uninstructed control group on a short-term post-test, but no significant differences emerged between any other groups on this measure. No differences in recall were found between any of the groups on a long-term post-test. Participants demonstrating some prior knowledge of Spanish recalled a significantly greater number of vocabulary words on the short-term post-test than participants unfamiliar with Spanish. The results suggest that instruction and prior knowledge of a second language can facilitate the early stages of second language acquisition.
Julia L. Murphy and Ann M. Steffen, University of Missouri—St. Louis
ABSTRACT: We randomly assigned older adults to receive mailed educational materials about prevention of falls in the bathroom (n = 87), or no materials (n = 89). After 4 weeks, we contacted participants by telephone to assess self-reported change and intention to install bathroom safety features, as well as self-efficacy for maintaining physical balance. Compared to control participants, intervention participants were more likely to report making actual bathroom safety improvements, intent to take action, and serious intent to add safety features. These intentions were also related to self-efficacy for maintaining balance. Safety intervention materials can be tailored for specific populations while at the same time being fiscally sensitive.
Changes in Parents’ Stress as Their Children Become Adolescents: A Validation of the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents
Melissa K. Wheatley and Diane E. Wille, Indiana University Southeast
ABSTRACT: This longitudinal assessment of changes in mothers’ and fathers’ parenting stress from their children’s mid-childhood to adolescence provides a unique inspection of the changes in stress experienced by both parents as children mature. Fifty-six mothers and fathers reported on parenting stress levels when their children were eight years of age and again when these children were 14 years of age. The Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (SIPA, Sheras, Abidin, & Konold, 1998) was found to be a valid upward extension of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Abidin, 1983). Results of the current study suggest relative stability of parenting stress as children mature from childhood to adolescence and show few differences in the stress levels experienced by mothers and fathers.