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Psi Chi Journal Spring 2002


Volume 7.1 | Spring 2002
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

Predictors of a New Typology of Youth Violence

Scott R. Weaver and Katherine Dunham, State University of New York College at Plattsburgh

ABSTRACT: This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors for youth violence, with a new and more comprehensive measure of 6 subtypes of violence, to determine if some factors are predictive of certain violence subtypes and not others. A convenience sample of 131 college undergraduates provided data on locus of control, perceived parenting style, affective empathy, history of violent behaviors, academic performance, father presence throughout childhood and adolescence, and demographic variables via a self-report survey. The analyses revealed that different factors predicted each of the 6 subtypes and total violence scores, and not always in the predicted manner. The subtypes of violence examined in this study and their predictors have the potential to contribute to the design of violence prevention and intervention programs.

Students' Attitudes Toward Mental Illness: A Macao-U.S. Cross-Cultural Comparison

Elvo Kuai-Long Sou and Lori M. Irving, Washington State University at Vancouver

ABSTRACT: The present study compared attitudes toward mental illness among college students in Macao, the United States (U.S.), and Macao students studying in the U.S. A total of 303 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing a self-report survey regarding their perceptions of mental illness. Students in Macao had the most negative attitudes and shame regarding mental illness. Macao students in the U.S. had attitudes intermediate to those of U.S. and Macao students. The findings are generally consistent with the literature and suggest an acculturation effect on the attitudes of Macao students in the U.S.

Impact of Different Social Models on Young Adults' Views of Marriage and Divorce

Angela D. Nickell and Marcela Raffaelli, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

ABSTRACT: In this study we examined the potential influence of multiple relationship models on young adults' attitudes regarding marriage and divorce. College students (n = 110; 62% women, mean age = 19.1) completed measures of marriage and divorce attitudes and described conflict and happiness of 3 couples (parents, positive marriage model, and negative marriage model). Parent and positive model characteristics were significantly correlated with marriage attitudes such that respondents describing parental and positive models that were low on conflict and high on happiness reported more positive marriage attitudes. In multiple regression analyses, only positive model happiness predicted marriage attitudes; no variables predicted divorce attitudes. Findings suggest the potential role of nonparental models in shaping young adults' attitudes toward marriage and divorce.

Effects of Racial Background and Sex on Identifying Facial Expressions and Person Perception

Shann E. Sagles, Sharon Coley, Germilina Espiritu, Patricia Zahregian, and Richard Velayo, Pace University

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the ability to accurately identify facial expressions of emotions of people of varying racial background: Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White. Through the use of a Person Perception Questionnaire and a Pictorial Test, 151 participants identified facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, and sadness based as a function of the target individual's racial background and sex. Results indicated that for the emotions of anger, disgust, and sadness, there were significant interactions based on the individual's target race and sex. In addition, there were significant findings for the emotions of anger and fear identified in the White target individuals compared to the target individual typifying other races. We also found significant differences in the way women were perceived, compared to men, in social, intellectual, and favorability trait scores. These results may be applied in the areas of marketing and multicultural education to educate others concerning the differences in emotional expression across cultures.

The Relation Between Obsessive-Compulsive Traits, Frontal Lobe Functioning, and Visual Recall

Kelli D. Nelson, Noah V. Clayton, and Kevin R. Byrd, University of Nebraska at Kearney

ABSTRACT: The authors of the current study administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Heaton, Chelune, Talley, Kay, & Curtiss, 1993), the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI; Hodgson & Rachman, 1977), and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (Lezak, 1995) to 32 undergraduate students in order to test a model in which the effects of frontal lobe functioning on visual recall are mediated by obsessive - compulsive traits. Frontal lobe functioning predicted scores on 1 of the 4 MOCI subscales (i.e., slowness) and visual recall. However, obsessive-compulsive traits did not mediate the relation between frontal lobe dysfunction and visual recall as predicted. We present a revised model of the relation between frontal lobe functioning, visual recall, and obsessive-compulsive traits.

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