|Psi Chi Journal Winter 2003|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 8.4 | Winter 2003
Altering Frequency Estimates of Hindsight Bias in Others Via Stereotyping: Asians as a Model Minority
Denessa E. Wright and Harry L. Hom, Jr., Southwest Missouri State University
ABSTRACT: The role racial stereotypes play in influencing attributions of hindsight bias in others was investigated. White college students made frequency estimates of hindsight bias for 1 of 3 different ethnic groups—Asians, Blacks, and Whites—with regard to a sporting event. The bias was estimated to be less for Asians than for both Whites and Blacks, with no significant difference between the latter two groups. Consistent with earlier research, this outcome supported the notion of positive stereotyping being linked to Asians; the negative stereotyping ascribed to Blacks was unsubstantiated. Future research should be aimed at the social psychology of hindsight bias, because overestimating its presence in others may lead us to minimize its prominence in our everyday thinking.
Elizabeth M. Shipps and Harvey R. Freeman, Ohio Wesleyan University
ABSTRACT: This study examined the relation of the handshake both to perceived personality characteristics in a first-impression situation and to actual measured personality traits. One hundred eight male and female college students completed the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ), which measures 8 personality characteristics. Additionally, the students rated 2 other participants on 3 hand-shaking measures and also provided their impressions of these 2 participants on the same 8 personality traits measured by the 8SQ. For men, perceived arousal was positively correlated with a firm, warm, and dry handshake. For women, a firm, warm, and dry handshake was positively related to perceived arousal and extroversion and negatively related to perceived anxiety, depression, fatigue, guilt, and regression. Results are discussed in terms of the particular importance of the handshake to women. It is concluded that when a woman extends her hand to be shaken, it is important that it be firm, warm, and dry if she wants to make a positive first impression on others.
Kira L. Barden, Baruch College, CUNY & The Graduate Center; Jennifer L. Lucas, Agnes Scott College
ABSTRACT: More than 100 million Americans commute between destinations in their automobiles (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1994). We examined perceived strain, number of negative physical symptoms, and exhaustion of employees who commute to and from work using automobiles. We gathered data through an Internet survey completed by 323 employees from across the United States who commuted to and from work daily in their automobiles. As predicted, commuters with high commute strain reported more negative physical symptoms and exhaustion than commuters with average or low levels of commute strain. Sex differences were found: women reported significantly higher levels of commute strain than did men. This study has important implications for commuters who may already be aware of their commute strain but are not aware of the negative health consequences related to elevated levels of strain.
Elizabeth Posey and Randolph A. Smith, Ouachita Baptist University
ABSTRACT: In this study of self-serving bias, 20 male and 16 female second graders completed an academic task with a same-sex partner. Half of the groups consisted of friends and the other half were nonfriends. The children had 3 min to complete a math worksheet and were told their group's performance would be graded as a whole. Each group received success or failure feedback. Results showed a significant interaction between the type of relationship between the partners and the type of feedback they received. Nonfriends in the failure group were more likely to exhibit the self-serving bias.
Rochelle James, Jennifer Thames, Mukul Bhalla, and John Cornwell, Loyola University New Orleans
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the intercorrelations between religiosity, perceived family support, and self-esteem in adolescents. Using convenience sampling, we recruited the participants from three high schools and one church youth group in Southeast Louisiana. There were 93 participants (32 male and 61 female) ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. The participants filled out a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Religiosity Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Family Scale. No significant correlation was found between religiosity and self-esteem. However, perceived family support and self-esteem had a significant positive correlation, as did perceived family support and religiosity. Male adolescents had lower religiosity than female adolescents. Suggestions for future research include investigating a more diverse sample and other possible variables.
Influence of a Sleeping Versus Waking Retention Interval on Spatial, Visual, and Auditory Memory Performance
Meghan Frey, Mariah Graca, Holly Hem, Cynthia Hoffman, and Tracey L. Kahan, Santa Clara University
ABSTRACT: We investigated the influence of a retention interval spent sleeping or waking on participants' performance in spatial, auditory, and visual tasks. Using Jenkins and Dallenbach's research (1924) as a paradigm, we replicated and extended the original study using a 2 X 3 mixed design with repeated measures. The 2 independent variables were the activity during the retention interval (i.e., sleeping or waking) and the 3 types of memory tasks (i.e., spatial, auditory, and visual). Fifty-seven undergraduate students participated in 2 sessions. Results indicate that a retention interval spent sleeping had a beneficial effect on auditory memory performance. We did not find a significant effect for visual and spatial memory performance, but attribute this to ceiling effects within the experimental design.
Todd Brock Marable, Virginia Deroma, and Conway Saylor, The Citadel
ABSTRACT: The attack of September 11, 2001, was one of the most devastating terrorist attacks in American history. Previous research has noted trauma-related symptoms within populations living geographically distant from the attack that had been exposed through the media (Pferrerbaum et al., 2000). The purposes of the present study were (a) to assess the level of traumatic impact of the September 11th attack reported by students within a college population geographically distant from the attack and (b) to find the benefits that were experienced within this population. Participants were 420 students aged 17 to 54 years (M = 21) who attended 3 colleges in a city not directly attacked on September 11th. The most commonly reported symptoms included difficulty concentrating, feeling edgy, and replaying painful memories. The most commonly reported benefits included being more aware of how much people care for one another and how good people can be. Results indicated that a majority of the sample reported posttraumatic stress disorder--like symptoms and that a heightened sense of compassion was experienced as a result of traumatic exposure, suggesting that college students may need additional support after widely publicized disasters.
Robert J. Cramer and Taylor R. Jantz-Sell, Loyola College
ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown a relation between leadership and characteristics such as extroversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness in many populations. This study attempted to extend these findings to a general college population. Ninety-nine undergraduates (36 leaders and 63 nonleaders) participated in this study. Previous research suggested leaders would exhibit higher levels of extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness than peer nonleaders. Results did not show significant relations between leadership and either extroversion or agreeableness. However, leaders scored higher on a measure of conscientiousness than nonleaders. Conscientiousness appears to distinguish student leaders from nonleaders.