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Psi Chi Journal Summer 2004


Volume 9.2 | Summer 2004
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

The Effects of Adult Supervision on Children's Play

Stacy Greenwood and Pamelyn M. MacDonald, Washburn University

ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of gender, pair type, and adult supervision on the type of play of 32 preschool children. The children were assigned to same sex or different sex pairs and allowed to play with a variety of toys for approximately 10 minutes. Each pair was observed and videotaped, once with a familiar adult present and once with that adult absent. The videos were coded according to positive or negative, cooperative, parallel or independent play. The results indicate that children engage in more positive behaviors when an adult is absent. Boy-boy pairs tend to engage in more cooperative play; girl-girl pairs engage in more parallel play; and boy-girl pairs engage in more independent play.

Average Sleep Times Among Undergraduate College Students

Christie A. Hosek and Brady J. Phelps, South Dakota State University; Jennifer Jensen, Purdue University

ABSTRACT: Psychology students (N = 996) were instructed to record in an informal sleep diary—the time they went to bed, the time they awoke, and the time they set the alarm—over a period of either 5, 7, 10, 20, or 25 nights in an attempt to measure sleep length among a college student population. The average amount of sleep among our participants was 7.69 hr, approximating another study (Kripke, Garfinkel, Wingard, Klauber, & Marler, 2002) which found an average sleep length of 7 hr.

Television Commercials: The Depiction and Portrayal of African-American Elderly Adults

Christi Washington and Jennifer L. Lucas, Agnes Scott College

ABSTRACT: This study used content analysis to examine the depictions and portrayals of African-American elderly in television commercials aired during the fall of 2001. Findings supported the hypothesis that African-American elderly adults were underrepresented in television commercials. African-American elderly characters were not often cast as the central figures in the commercials and were primarily used to advertise health, food and household products. However, African-American elderly adults were often portrayed as healthy and physically act.

Perceptions of Lyrics based on Music Category and Perceiver's Race

Juan Zapatel and Stella Garcia-Lopez, University of Texas at San Antonio

ABSTRACT: The study investigated perceptions of lyrics as a function of perceivers' race and the music labels attached to them. Lyrics were presented to Anglo and Hispanic participants as black rap, latin rap, alternative, or Christian music. Afterwards, participants responded to questionnaire items that assessed attitudes about the lyrics and perception of the artist. Results showed, as predicted, that lyrics labeled black rap were viewed more negatively than latin rap, alternative, or Christian. That perceptions were more positive for lyrics labeled Christian than rap or alternative was also supported. The other result, that Anglo more than Hispanic participants perceived lyrics labeled black rap unfavorably than in other categories, was found for the dependent variable of degree of lyrics' influence on teenagers.

Relationships Between the Big Five Personality Factors, Resiliency Attitudes, and Life Satisfaction in Divorced Parents

Melissa Scanlan and Debra Schroeder, The College of St. Scholastica

ABSTRACT: This study investigated connections between the Big Five Personality Factors, resiliency attitudes, and life satisfaction in divorced parents. It was predicted that resiliency attitudes and life satisfaction would correlate positively with extraversion and negatively with neuroticism. Thirty-seven participants were administered the Resiliency Attitude Scale (RAS), the NEO-FFI, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Pearson correlations indicated that the NEO-FFI did not correlate well with either the RAS or the SWLS. However, there were correlations between the NEO-FFI subscales and two RAS items. Specifically, more neurotic individuals tended to find new ways of looking at things and less extraverted individuals tended to avoid repeating unhealthy relationships. Discussions follow regarding reasons for the lack of relationships and directions for future research.

Now and Later: The Role of Personality and Cognition in Considering the Future

Michelle A. Williams, The College of Saint Rose

ABSTRACT: The first of the current studies examined relationships among Future Time Perspective, Consideration of Future Consequences, Desire for Control, Achievement Motivation, and Integrative Complexity. A mediational model was proposed, in which Consideration of Future Consequences would mediate the relationship between Future Time Perspective and Desire for Control. It was also expected that Integrative Complexity would moderate the relationship between Future Time Perspective and Consideration of Future Consequences. Although these hypotheses were not supported, the results suggested that Consideration of Future Consequences mediates the relationship between Future Time Perspective and Achievement Motivation. A second study replicated the unpredicted mediational relationship, suggesting that an open-ended time perspective relates to greater Achievement Motivation because of increases in Consideration of Future Consequences.

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