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Psi Chi Journal Spring 2005


Volume 10.1 | Spring 2005
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

Effects of Environmental Factors on the Health of College Students

Kristen Robinson, John Carroll University

ABSTRACT: The goal of this correlational study was to determine predictors of student health in order to gain knowledge of what steps can be taken to improve health during the college years. Specifically, locus of control, loneliness, social support, and college adjustment were examined to determine if they are significant predictors of student health. Both frequency of illness and severity of illness were considered. Thirty male and thirty female college students completed surveys via computer. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that none of the factors included are significant predictors for frequency of illness, whereas, locus of control and college adjustment significantly predict severity of illness. Specifically, internal locus of control and better adjustment predict acute episodes that are less severe.

Prescription Medication, Backward Masking Performance, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Lindsey N. Smith and Marion T. Gaines IV, Presbyterian College

ABSTRACT: Ten college students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 10 undiagnosed controls identified masked and unmasked tachistoscopically presented 2-digit targets. The ADHD group had taken prescribed medication for the disorder prior to 1 of 2 sessions. The earlier masking deficit obtained in adolescent ADHD participants relative to controls at a 49.5 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) but not at 33.0 ms (B. R. Rund, M. Øie, & K. Sundet, 1996), fell short of significance here at an SOA of 71.2 ms, and medication had no effect. Iconic processing difficulties rather than attention problems are implicated in the ADHD masking deficit obtained under controlled conditions which preclude the benefit of greater attention seen with medication in normal reading.

A Measure of Drawing Self-Efficacy: A Psychometric Evaluation

Radha G. Dunham and Lonnie R. Yandell, Belmont University

ABSTRACT: Self-efficacy is a term used to describe one’s confidence in one’s abilities to complete a given task. The purpose of this study was to create a drawing self-efficacy scale and test its validity and reliability based on the instructions in Bandura’s (2001) Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales. To test validity, the scale was administered to advanced, beginning, and non-art students. It was predicted that the advanced art students would score the highest, the beginning art students would score the intermediately, and the non-art students would score the lowest. The scale only distinguished between artists and non-artists, showing some signs of construct validity. The scale was also shown to have high internal reliability.

Feeling Phony in Social Situations: The Development and Validation of the Social Imposterism Scale

Jenelle N. Boo, Western Illinois University

ABSTRACT: The imposter phenomenon is defined as feelings of inadequacy and fraudulence by successful people (Clance & Imes, 1978). Previous research on the imposter phenomenon has focused on achievement, such as academic performance (King & Cooley, 1995). However, little research has examined imposter feelings in interpersonal situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate social imposterism by creating a measure of this construct. Forty items were written to reflect theoretical dimensions of social imposterism. Based on psychometric analyses, the 25 best performing items were selected for the final scale. The Social Imposterism Scale correlated with achievement imposterism, loneliness, self-esteem, and fear of appearing incompetent. The development of this scale allows researchers to further examine feelings of phoniness in social situations.

Relationships Among Body Comfort Level, Sexual Assertiveness, and Frequency of Sexual Behavior in Men and Women

Lisa L. Guy and Suzanne L. Osman, Salisbury University

ABSTRACT: Sexual communication and comfort may be related to seeking out and frequently engaging in sexual activities with a partner. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body comfort level, sexual assertiveness, and frequency of sexual behavior in both men and women. Participants were 180 university students. Positive associations were found among all three variables. Men scored higher than women on body comfort level and sexual assertiveness, but there was no gender difference in frequency of sexual behavior. Results are discussed in terms of gender roles and satisfying sexual relations.

Creativity, Intelligence, Cognitive Inhibition, and Thought Organization: Links Among a Non-Clinical Schizotypal Population

Erica R. Hoff and F.R. Ferraro, University of North Dakota

ABSTRACT: Cognitive aspects of the schizophrenic spectrum have been of great interest to researchers. Research completed over the past several decades suggests a link between creativity and schizotypy. It has been hypothesized that this creativity is seen at an above average rate among the schizophrenic spectrum as a direct result of cognitive deficits often seen in the disease. This study examines intelligence levels, creative ability, cognitive inhibition, and thought organization in two groups of individuals: those with higher scores (N = 50) on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, and those with lower scores (N = 50). Results did not replicate previous findings regarding cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. The current results do, however, offer insight into several areas of interest for future research.

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