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Psi Chi Journal Winter 2005


Volume 10.4 | Winter 2005
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

False Memories From Semantic Associates are Reduced by Item-Method Directed Forgetting Instructions

Jane Stout, Sarah Tauber, and Daniel P. Corts, Augustana College

ABSTRACT: In item-method directed forgetting studies, participants are shown a series of words and given a corresponding instruction to either remember or forget each word. This method has consistently lead to superior memory for to-be-remembered (TBR) words relative to to-be-forgotten (TBF) words. The present experiment examined the effects of item-method directed forgetting in the context of the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm. Participants were shown lists of words that contained both semantically related (DRM) words and unrelated words. False memory for a strong semantic associate occurred significantly more often when they were told to remember DRM words than when they were told to forget DRM words. The results support the notion that directed forgetting effects using this procedure are due to differential encoding and rehearsal of remember and forget items.

Self-Perceived Influence of Music Genres in Incarcerated and NonIncarcerated Adolescents

David Madrak, Cabrini College

ABSTRACT: This study attempted to discriminate between incarcerated and nonincarcerated adolescent males on the basis of their self-reported music preference and concomitant attitudes and behavior. Data analysis was based on a sample of 125 participants, 21 incarcerated and 104 nonincarcerated adolescent males from suburban Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Forward logistic regression correctly classified 95.2% of the cases. Regression tests indicated that musical preference, along with demographic variables and self-reports of aggression, discriminated incarcerated from nonincarcerated adolescent males to a significant degree.

Sex Differences in Visual Perception Using Stereopsis

Cassandra F. Shular, Keegan D. Greenier, and Miranda Pratt, Mercer University; James E. Arruda, University of West Florida

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the recognition of stereograms as a pictorial representation of 3-D shape, while studying prospectively the relationship between sex and stereopsis (visuo-spatial) ability. Twenty-one Mercer University students (9 men, 12 women) viewed 240 random-dot Julesz stereograms at two levels of disparity (hard and easy). The surfaces were displayed using E-Prime software, which also recorded accuracy and reaction time measurements for each surface. Results indicated that there were no significant sex differences for the measures of accuracy or reaction time. The lack of statistically significant effects involving the sex of participants does not support previous research studies that have documented sex differences. Possible explanations, limitations, and additional future research suggestions are discussed.

The Effects of Gender and Aging on Pain Perception

Caitlin McEntarfer and David Page, Nazareth College of Rochester; Jean DiPirro, Buffalo State College, SUNY

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine how the perception of pain, induced in the cold pressor test, is related to age and gender. Volunteers (40 men and 40 women), aged 18-23 and 65-81 years, immersed their dominant hand in a bucket of water kept at 2º C. Pain threshold was determined as the time taken to notice pain from the stimulus. Pain tolerance was determined as the time before the participant removed his or her hand from the water, presumably because the pain became too intense. Analyses revealed that pain thresholds remain constant across age and gender, but that women have lower pain tolerance than men. Also, pain tolerance is lower for older adults than for younger adults.

An Examination of the Relationship Among Daily Hassles, Uplifts, and Depressive Symptoms in a College Population

Nicole L. Armstrong, Andrea M. Davis, and Wayne A. Dixon, Southeastern Oklahoma State University

ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationships among minor uplifts, daily hassles, and depressive symptoms in a sample of undergraduate college students as an extension of the Dixon and Reid (2000) study on major positive life events as a buffer to major negative life events in predicting depressive symptoms. Consistent with predictions, the results of a hierarchical multiple regression indicated a significant main effect for minor uplifts in predicting depressive symptoms such that increases in minor uplifts were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms. There was also a significant effect for daily hassles in predicting depressive symptoms such that increases in daily hassles were associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Contrary to predictions, there was not a significant interaction between daily hassles and minor uplifts in predicting depressive symptoms. However, daily hassles accounted for a significantly larger amount of variance in predicting depressive symptoms than did minor uplifts. This suggests minor negative events are more severe than minor positive events or those minor negative events are given much more weight than that of minor positive events.

Inhibition of Return During Location- and Object-Based Attention

Brian P. Kurilla and Edward J. Crawley, Marywood University

ABSTRACT: Inhibition of return (IOR) is the finding that individuals are slower to return their attention to an object and/or location that has been previously cued (valid cue) as opposed to an object and/or location that has not been previously cued (invalid cue). However, whether this effect is primarily a result of inhibition to the cued object or to the cued spatial location has yet to be unequivocally determined. The current study addressed this issue by separately evaluating location-based and object-based IOR and comparing participant performance between conditions. The results of the current study indicate that IOR occurs when attention is focused on locations and facilitation occurs when attention is focused on objects

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