|Psi Chi Journal Spring 2006|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 11.1 | Spring 2006
The Effect of Temporal Focus on Affective Forecasts Regarding the Outcome of the 2004 Presidential Election
Catherine Camilletti, Sarah Campbell, and Julie A. Woodzicka, Washington and Lee University
ABSTRACT: Focalism occurs when, as a result of directing a great deal of attention to some event, a person overestimates the impact of that event on his/her future emotional reactions. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of using a past or future temporal focus as a means to reduce both focalism and inaccurate affective forecasting. Participants' were asked to focus on different events and periods of time before they predicted their emotional reactions to the outcome of the 2004 Presidential Election. Following the election, the participants' predicted ratings were compared with their actual ratings. Evidence of the durability bias was found, but focalism was not reduced by directing thoughts to the past or future.
Jodie L. Bouanchaud and Elizabeth Yost Hammer, Loyola University New Orleans; Elliott D. Hammer, Xavier University of Louisiana
ABSTRACT: Physical attractiveness is important in choosing a romantic partner. Among other similarities, the matching hypothesis predicts that we will choose partners with similar levels of attractiveness. The present study examines whether the matching hypothesis holds for reality television. Two individuals coded two reality TV shows for physical attractiveness of couples. This archival study provided information about how well a reality television show matched "reality's" method of choosing a partner. No relationship emerged between physical attractiveness and when the individuals were cut from the shows. Significant positive correlations emerged, however, between ratings of how funny, friendly, competitive, affectionate, and arrogant the individuals were, as well as their level of common interest when they were cut from the shows.
Madeline E. McNeeley, Laura N. May, and Deborah P. Welsh, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
ABSTRACT: Social dating has long been considered a central part of the adolescent experience by psychological theorists. Specifically, Erikson (1968) and Sullivan (1953) theorized that early romantic relationships play an important role in healthy psychosocial development. Moreover, Dunphy (1963) proposed a stage theory in which normative development of interpersonal relationships culminates in late adolescence with involvement in intimate, dyadic romantic relationships. However, little empirical research has been conducted on these theories until very recently. This study extends the line of research in this area by analyzing the relationship between romantic involvement and well-being in late adolescence; whereby well-being is defined as positive self-concept and the absence of depression. Implications of the findings for these theories are discussed.
John P. Steele and John N. Pinto, Morningside College
ABSTRACT: Organizations need to know the basis on which new policies are evaluated by employees and the variables that influence the adoption of policies and ideas. Based upon prior research, one factor that may play a significant role in this evaluation is subordinate/leader trust. The present study attempted to ascertain the influence of trust on evaluation of an organizational policy based upon message support. Ninety-three participants (teachers) read a memo indicating support or nonsupport for an organizational policy (new teacher certification) by their direct supervisor (school principal) with accompanying rationale for the position. In addition, participants self-reported their level of trust in their direct supervisor using the Behavioral Trust Inventory (BTI). Results indicate the higher the level of trust in the direct supervisor, the higher the extent of subordinate agreement, regardless of the position taken by the principal. No other variables studied such as length of relationship, years teaching, age, and gender were related to subordinate agreement.
Melissa K. Tibbits, Pennsylvania State University; Dennis R. Combs, University of Tulsa
ABSTRACT: Contemporary theories of racial attitudes have stated that two distinct forms of racism exist in America today–overt and covert. Recent studies have suggested that racial attitudes towards African Americans have become increasingly covert in their expression while overt racism has declined. However, racial attitudes towards other minority groups, such as Native Americans, have not been consistently studied in this regard. This study examined self-reported overt and covert racial attitudes of 55 White college students towards Native Americans and African Americans. The results showed higher levels of overt and covert racism towards Native Americans as compared to African Americans. Social desirability and socioeconomic status were not related to racial attitudes. Possible reasons for differences in the expression of racial attitudes between the two groups are discussed.
Does Making Salient Task Relevance to Group Affiliation Decrease the Performance of Male Athletes on Spatial Tasks?
Cathrine B. Balentine and Sheila Brownlow, Catawba College
ABSTRACT: We examined whether highlighting the similarities between the skills needed for sports and the skills used in Mental Rotation (MR) influenced male athletes' performance on spatial tasks. College men, half of whom were athletes, completed MR under two conditions: one which made explicit the analogous nature of the skills needed for both MR and sports, and one which did not. Unlike women in previous studies, male athletes did not underperform when the importance of the MR to athleticism was highlighted. We discuss the results in context of differences between men and women in responses to stereotype threat and in levels of self-confidence.