|Psi Chi Journal Fall 2006|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 11.3 | Fall 2006
The Effects of Political Advertising Message and Candidate Gender on Likelihood to Vote for the Sponsoring Candidate
Cristin Cox, Mindy Parnell, and Daniel Salvaggio, Christian Brothers University
ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of political candidates' gender and advertising message, 160 undergraduates (90 women, 62 men, and 8 unreported) read 1 of 4 political ads and completed a questionnaire assessing the ad, perceptions of candidate personality, and likelihood of voting for the candidate. As hypothesized, a 2 (candidate gender: man or woman) X 2 (ad: comparative or negative) analysis of variance revealed that participants were more likely to vote for a candidate who used comparative advertising. However, contrary to our hypotheses, neither the effect of gender nor the gender by ad interaction was significant. Our findings suggest that politicians should carefully choose the advertising message for their campaigns because it can have a significant impact on a voter's choice.
Terri L. Entricht, Jennifer L. Hughes, and Holly A. Geldhauser, Agnes Scott College
ABSTRACT: This study examined 2 stressors of work and family roles, hours worked and the division of household labor, and their effect on the work-family and family-work conflict experienced by employed marital partners in the United States. Results indicate men worked more hours and experienced more work-family conflict than women; however, number of hours worked impacted the degree of work-family conflict experienced for both genders. The amount of hours worked also was a significant indicator of employed women's satisfaction with the division of household labor. Individuals in dual-income couples reporting equal divisions of household labor experienced less family-work conflict than individuals reporting unequal divisions.
Cheyann N. Videon and Mary Ellen Fromuth, Middle Tennessee State University
ABSTRACT: This study explored whether parents of murdered children and parents of missing children, presumed deceased, differed in their coping strategies and adjustment. Participants (21 parents of murdered children and 18 parents of missing children, presumed deceased) completed the Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist and 2 subscales of the Coping Strategy Indicator. A series of ttests indicated no significant differences between the 2 groups of parents. When the data were reanalyzed limiting the sample to parents whose children disappeared or was murdered within the past 5 years, it was found that parents of murdered children were seeking significantly more support than parents of missing children.
Jessica S. Bergmann and Joanne D. Altman, Washburn University of Topeka
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between secondary school environment and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Undergraduate students completed a demographic survey, which gathered information regarding their secondary schools, and a Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning Scale. The participants were categorized into groups based on the school they attended: small, medium, or large public schools, parochial schools, or home schools. The data suggest that participants from home schools have significantly more self-efficacy for self-regulated learning than do those from large public schools.
Attention to Environmental Context Cues and Response Modulation: A Measure of Psychopathy and Cognition in a University Setting
Brittany Travers, Creighton University
ABSTRACT: Because psychopaths have difficulty in passive avoidance learning, it has been suggested that they have cognitive impediments in response modulation when engaged in reward-driven behavior (Newman, Schmitt, & Voss, 1997). The experimenter assessed psychopathic traits in 90 undergraduate students using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and compared the performance of the high psychopathy group with the low psychopathy group on a Stroop-like picture-word task (Gernsbacher & Faust, 1991) to examine possible response modulation deficits in noninstitutionalized students. Contrary to the prediction, students with more psychopathic traits performed just as well as students with less psychopathic traits on the Picture-Word Task. The author discusses future research suggestions and possible cognitive differences between institutionalized (unsuccessful) and noninstitutionalized (successful) psychopaths.
Helen Lee Lin and C. Raymond Knee, University of Houston
ABSTRACT: Predictors of closeness in local (LRs) and long-distance relationships (LDRs) were examined by surveying 205 college students (145 in local, 60 in long-distance). Mean differences between the groups emerged on usage of communication channels and attitudes toward LDRs. Positive attitudes toward LDRs, social support from one's partner, and social support from friends were among several factors found to be marginally significant predictors of closeness for those in LDRs. The relationships between closeness and social support from friends, social support from other people, and communication by telephone were all moderated by type of relationship. Similar findings emerged in an examination of coping strategies, and the use of some coping techniques were more predictive of closeness in LDRs than in LRs.