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Psi Chi Journal Winter 2006


Volume 11.4 | Winter 2006
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

The Effects of Pragmatic Content on Syllogistic Reasoning

Benjamin J. Stefonik and Allen Keniston, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

ABSTRACT: Performances on reasoning tasks have been known to be affected by the type of material presented to the participants. In this study, we examined performance differences between pragmatic and abstract material when solving immediate inference problems using necessity instructions. Participants were given 16 immediate inferences with abstract material and 16 immediate inferences will pragmatic material. An overall significant facilitation effect was found for pragmatic material (p < .01). However, the pragmatic facilitation effects were found for specific problems, not for the entire problem set. Thus, the effects of the study's specific pragmatic material cannot be determined at this time.

Influence of Voting Convenience, Poll-Point Spread, and Age on Reported Voting Behavior

Rebecca Dryden and Lauren Scharff, Stephen F. Austin State University

ABSTRACT: We investigated the influence of voting convenience, the point spread of polls and age group on likelihood to vote. Unlike previous studies, we created 2 subgroups for those less than 30 years old. Using scenarios, East Texas participants (N = 158, aged 18-79 years) were surveyed prior to the November 2004 presidential election. The smallest point spread and greater ease of convenience significantly increased reported likelihood to vote. Participants aged 18-22 years were as likely to vote as older participants, while those aged 23-29 years were least likely to vote. Our results should be used to caution the media about polling and broadcasting early results. Voting advocacy efforts should begin to target 23-29 years old rather than primarily focusing on those aged 18-22 years.

Can Gender, Weapons, and Wealth Influence Our Views About Domestic Violence?

Angela D. Mooss and Michael S. Odeh, Creighton University

ABSTRACT: Attitudes about domestic violence are complex and difficult to assess. The present study attempted to assess societal attitudes by asking participants to read 3 domestic violence case summaries and respond to examine the influence of perpetrator gender, weapon type, and socioeconomic status. Results indicated that participants generally responded to differences between cases rather than to manipulated variables. Therefore, analyses were conducted using case difference as a fixed factor. Implications for domestically violent situations and limitations on external validity also are discussed.

The Relationship Between Hope and Dieting

Brittany E. Cornell, Amy L. Ordogne, Jason S. David Seidman, Stephanie M. Sneed, and Elizabeth Yost Hammer, Loyola University New Orleans

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hope and dieting, including physical activity and eating behavior. It was hypothesized that those with higher levels of hope would have healthier dieting behaviors. A sample of 47 university students were given a survey packet including Snyder's Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, the Restraint Scale, a nutritional behavior scale, and various physical activity measurements. Results indicated partial support for the hypothesis. Hope was significantly related to physical activity, including exercise status, activity level, and intensity level. Hope was not significantly related to nutritional behavior or restrained eating. The findings are consistent with previous research showing that optimists are more likely to engage in physical activity, and therefore these findings have practical implications in exercise regimens.

The Role of Sleep, Stress, and Coping Styles on Anxiety and Depression

Jodi A. Lezamiz and Mary Pritchard, Boise State University

ABSTRACT: Previous research has examined the relation between sleep and mental health in adolescent and elderly populations. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between college students' sleep habits and their mental health, particularly anxiety and depression. It was found that individuals with sleep disturbances may be at risk for depression and anxiety. Another goal of this study was to do an exploratory analysis of stress, coping strategies, gender, and sleep to discover which variables would best predict depression and anxiety. Avoidant coping was the best predictor followed by sleep disturbances for both depression and anxiety. The gender, of an individual was also found to have a negative effect on one's sleep, specifically for a woman.

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