|Psi Chi Journal Summer 2007|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 12.2 | Summer 2007
Courtney Smith, Clemson University
ABSTRACT: Appearance has effects on many of our social interactions. But, to what extent are people naturally encoding the appearance of others? Previous research has examined appearance accuracy in eyewitness settings and the numerous physical factors that could affect memory for the appearance of others. The present study, however, focused on 2 personality characteristics, social anxiety and public self-consciousness, that would seem to contribute to varying levels of appearance accuracy. Participants were given 4 min to work on a jigsaw puzzle with a confederate and were then taken into a separate room to complete a questionnaire testing their levels of social anxiety and public self-consciousness as well as their memory for the appearance of the confederate. Social anxiety correlated positively with appearance accuracy and was found to be a unique predictors of appearance accuracy based on a multiple regression. Public self-consciousness, on the other hand, showed no significant correlation and was not found to be a unique predictor of appearance accuracy. Gender differences were also identified, with women showing greater accuracy.
Laura Van Schaick, Kerry Kovacik, Kelly Hallman, Michael Diaz, and Sean Morrison, St. Joseph's College
ABSTRACT: Personality has been shown to predict both career satisfaction and college major (Holland, 1996; Gottfredson, Jones, & Holland, 1993). Therefore, the present study examined the relationship between major, personality traits, and academic satisfaction in elementary and secondary education majors. It was hypothesized that major and personality traits would predict academic satisfaction. A sample of 144 undergraduate college students (Mean age = 20.64, SD = 2.04; majority being European American and women) completed a demographics questionnaire and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). Elementary education majors were significantly more satisfied with their major when compared to secondary education majors. Additionally, conscientiousness was also a significant predictor of academic satisfaction. Therefore, considering personality factors may be useful in college planning. Limitations and future research are discussed.
Erron L. Benner and D. Stephen Lindsay, University of Victoria
ABSTRACT: Forgot-it-all-along (FIA) refers to a memory phenomenon wherein prior episodes of remembering are forgotten. Arnold and Lindsay (2002, 2005) found that when a word is remembered in different ways on separate occasions, individuals are more likely to forget recalling the word on the first occasion. The FIA effect has also been observed for autobiographical stimuli, which typically contain a stronger visual imagery component relative to verbal stimuli (Rubin, 2005). To reduce the gap between verbal and autobiographical stimuli, the present study investigated whether a FIA effect could be obtained using pictorial stimuli. Forty-eight undergraduate students studied 48 homographs, each presented in one of two contexts. Homographs were presented as words for some subjects, as line drawings for others. Context (studied vs. other) was manipulated across two successive cued-recall tests. For each item on the second cued recall test, subjects were asked if they had recalled that item on the first test. Results revealed an equivalent FIA effect for pictorial and word stimuli. The findings are interpreted within the transfer-appropriate processing and source monitoring frameworks.
Cognitive, Environmental, and Familial Mediators and Moderators Between Exposure to Violence and Adolescent Delinquency
Traci M. Barrett, University of Pennsylvania
ABSTRACT: Research on the childhood risk factors associated with living in low-income neighborhoods has indicated that exposure to violence predicts adolescent aggression and externalizing behaviors. Discrepancies exist in the preliminary data concerning the factors that explain this association. Using a prospective, longitudinal design, we tested the effect of exposure to violence at one point in time on adolescent delinquency at a later point. We also conducted hierarchical regression analyses to test whether cognitive factors such as future expectations, depression, and neighborhood satisfaction mediated this relation, and whether parental support moderated the effects of exposure to violence on adolescent delinquency. The sample was a nationally-representative cohort of 6,504 adolescents who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health and were in seventh through twelfth grade between 1994 and 1995. Results yielded significant unique effects of exposure to violence and future expectations on adolescent delinquency, but future expectations, depression, and neighborhood satisfaction did not mediate the effect of exposure on delinquency. Parental closeness was negatively associated with delinquency, but parental monitoring was not. Neither parental closeness nor monitoring moderated the association between exposure to violence and delinquency.
Sarah M. Sherman and MindyLynn Tayet, California State University, Long Beach
ABSTRACT: These two experiments examined factors that influence book-carrying behaviors in college-aged women and men. In Experiment 1, 500 college students carrying books were observed naturalistically and their body size noted. Results showed that book carrying is a gendered activity, with men and women using distinct styles of book carrying. Body size was not a significant influence. In Experiment 2, the influence of gender identification, self-esteem, and acculturation on book carrying behaviors was examined in laboratory with 100 students. Using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bern, 1975), the results showed that those with feminine gender identification scores preferred a different carrying style than participants with masculine gender identification scores. Also, each sex found their preferred style to be a more physically comfortable way to carry books. We found that acculturation and self-esteem were not significant influences on book carrying.
Acculturation Status and Related Psychological Processes: What Do Ethnic Labels Reveal for Mexican Origin College Students?
Sherry C. Wang and Byron L. Zamboanga, Smith College
ABSTRACT: Ethnic self-labels have been overlooked as an important dimension of ethnic identity. Knowledge on how people ethnically self-identify can help shed light on their unique cultural experiences. We examined differences in acculturation status and related psychological processes across ethnic self-labels among Mexican origin college students (N = 160). Across three ethnic label typologies (national, "Mexican"; pan-ethnic, "Hispanic"; compound, "Mexican American"), differences emerged in linguistic acculturation and acculturative stress, but not self-esteem or ethnic identity. Such findings highlight the importance and utility of ethnic self-identification in our understanding of acculturation status and related psychological processes.