|Psi Chi Journal Fall 2007|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 12.3 | Fall 2007
Robert R. Wright and Tamara J. Ferguson, Utah State University
ABSTRACT: Stereotypically female patterns of speech communication, including expression of empathy, sharing similar experiences, and asking further questions were compared to typical male patterns of communication in gender attraction. Following presentation of the two conversations, the Attractive Communication Styles Survey and the Conversation Survey Questionnaire assessed differences in attraction between the two conversation styles, with a convenience sample of 164 university students. Analyses revealed both men and women valuing the stereotypical female pattern of communication, but differing in the intensity of support, with women strongly favoring and men slightly favoring the female pattern, t(72) = 6.35, p < .01; t(90) = 13.81, p < .01. Implications for further research on dyadic interaction effects on attraction are supported.
What Did She Say? An Examination of the Influence of Conversation and Media Exposure on Participants’ Body Objectification and Anxiety
Annie L. Cory, Morningside College
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to determine whether exposure to media photographs and overheard conversation, including fat-talk or good-looking talk, affected women’s self-objectification and anxiety levels. Forty-nine female participants were asked to complete anxiety and self-objectification questionnaires following exposure to media/no media and fat talk/good-looking talk. Three hypotheses were proposed: (a) participants who viewed media photographs of female models would be more self-objectifying and anxious than those who did not view the photographs; (b) women exposed to fat talk would be more self-objectifying and anxious than those exposed to good-looking talk; and (c) women who experienced the media exposure with fat talk would report the highest self-objectification scores and anxiety levels. Results indicate mixed support for these hypotheses.
Trista S. Baird and April M. Morrison, Winthrop University
ABSTRACT: Body image is an influential factor in young women’s eating behavior. This study examined body image and its relationship to eating behaviors among African-American and Caucasian young adult women. The results indicate differences in women’s eating patterns are related to race and body esteem. Caucasian women were found to have lower body satisfaction than African-American women. African-American women rated their sexual attractiveness body esteem, weight concern body esteem, and physical condition body esteem higher than Caucasian women. African-American women also had a higher ideal weight. Women who rated themselves as having very unhealthy eating habits had higher ideal weight, lower body esteem about their weight, and lower body esteem about their physical condition than women with healthier reported eating habits.
Rachel Carter, Lindsey Schneider, Liz Byrun, Elizabeth Forest, and Liz Jochem, University of Iowa
ABSTRACT: The effect of a partner’s gender on the decision to be cooperative or noncooperative was assessed using a contemporary, real-world variant of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game. Forty male and forty female college students were asked to imagine that they were gong on an oil expedition in which they could operatively choose to search together or uncooperatively choose to search alone. Each decision was made independently, but the outcome depended on both participants’ decisions. It was found that although women cooperated more than men, men and women cooperated significantly more when their partner was a woman. Furthermore, in response to a question about partner cooperativeness, women rated their partners as more cooperative during the game whereas men rated their partners as more competitive. However, all of the participants made more noncooperative decisions as the game went on.
Terri L. Entricht and Jennifer L. Hughes, Agnes Scott College
ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of parenthood and gender on work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) in an effort to fill gaps in the work and family conflict literature. The relationship between work and family conflict and stress also was assessed. Results show that individuals in dual-income couples with high levels of WFC reported higher levels of stress compared to individuals in dualincome couples with lower levels of WFC. Similar results were found for dual-income couples with high levels of FWC compared to dual-income couples with lower levels of FWC. No gender differences were found in the degree of WFC or FWC experienced, but women reported greater stress than did men. Individuals in dual-income couples with young children reported more WFC and FWC than nonparents and individuals with older children.
Dana Keener, California University of Pennsylvania
ABSTRACT: The present study investigated differences in statistical knowledge. Thirty male "No Limit Texas Hold’em” players were asked if they viewed this game as one of skill or luck. Participants read 10 mock situations in which they had to choose the percentage that best resembled their chance of beating their opponent. The results showed that the players who classified "No Limit Texas Hold’em” as a game of skill correctly interpreted more statistical questions, and the participants who classified it as luck were more likely to incorrectly view their hand as winning 50% of the time. Consistent with predictions, the skill players exhibited more statistical knowledge and the luck players were more likely to view the situations as a coin flip.
Underpinnings of Academic Success: Effective Study Skills Use as a Function of Academic Locus of Control and Self-Efficacy
Blaine D. Landis and Jennifer D. Cavin, Washburn University
ABSTRACT: Research indicates an internal locus of control (LOC) and high self-efficacy (SE) are related to greater academic performance. However, how LOC and SE relate to self-reported study skills use, a known precursor to academic performance, is not entirely clear. Participants’ scores on the LOC and SE scales were split down the median to produce a 2 x 2 matrix, wherein an internal LOC and high SE would hypothetically correspond to the greatest self-reported use of study skills. The results revealed that participants with a moderate LOC and moderate SE reported significantly less study skills use than the other 3 groups. The authors discuss how greater academic performance is implied through LOC, SE, and their attendant pattern of study skills use.
Christy Zenner, Boise State University
ABSTRACT: This study documents what undergraduate students know about the primarily women’s health issues of breast cancer and eating disorders. It was hypothesized that women would know more than men about breast cancer and eating disorders. It was also hypothesized that participants would know more about eating disorders than they would about breast cancer. An independent samples t test revealed that women did in fact know more about eating disorders and breast cancer than did men, and that participants did know more about eating disorders than about breast cancer. Results suggest that although high school students have some knowledge about eating disorders and breast cancer, health teachers might want to focus more on these topics to improve student knowledge even further.