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Psi Chi Journal Winter 2009

PSI CHI JOURNAL

Volume 14.4 | Winter 2009
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

Reducing Own-Age Bias: Does Contact Improve Young Adults’ Recognition of Older Faces?

Emily N. LeDonne, Christopher R. Poirier, and Lincoln G. Craton; Stonehill College

ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether young adults’ own-age bias—better recognition for same-age faces than other-age faces—decreases after contact with older people. Recent evidence suggests that contact with other-race faces improves recognition memory for other-race faces (Sangrigoli, Pallier, Argenti, Ventureyra, & de Schonen, 2005). To extend this finding to the own-age bias, we tested 9 participants’ face recognition accuracy before and after they volunteered with older people and compared it to that of 8 participants who did not volunteer. Though all participants demonstrated own-age bias, interaction with older people did not reduce it. Alternative explanations for these findings are discussed.

https://doi.org/10.24839/1089-4136.JN14.4.137


Exploring the Effects of Familiarity and Synchrony on the McGurk Effect

An Mai, Mercer-University

ABSTRACT: The McGurk effect is a speech phenomenon that demonstrates how speech perception is influenced by both visual and auditory processing (McGurk and MacDonald, 1976). For instance, when there is a discrepancy between the auditory stimulus (hearing a "ba” sound) and the visual stimulus (seeing someone move his or her lips to a "ga” sound), people report hearing a new and different speech sound ("da”). In the present study, I combined the factors of familiarity and synchrony to see what influence their relationship would have on the McGurk effect. Some participants viewed videos of a professor they knew (familiar), whereas others viewed a professor they didn’t know (unfamiliar). Synchrony was manipulated so that the audio was either in synchrony with the video, delayed by 90 ms, or delayed by 180 ms. Participants were presented with the stimuli and asked to report what they heard. Results indicated that the McGurk effect occurred most often when audio and visual stimuli were in synchrony. No other effects were significant. These findings were consistent with the original findings from McGurk and MacDonald, which stressed that the McGurk effect is a multimodal phenomenon.

https://doi.org/10.24839/1089-4136.JN14.4.142


Happy People Don’t Follow the Stereotype: The Impact of Mood on Stereotyping

S. Katherine Nelson and Holly H. Schiffrin University of Mary Washington

ABSTRACT: Sexual assault (SA) prevention efforts on college campuses usually target women (the victims); yet men are far more likely to be the perpetrators of sexual violence. The present study evaluated how male attitudes, measured by rape myth acceptance, and behaviors, measured by willingness to seek information, could be changed pro-­socially. A false feedback paradigm was used to manipulate male personal responsibility by presenting men with sham rape myth acceptance scores. Results indicate that men who received the "high score” (signifying high rape myth acceptance) had greater personal responsibility for the issue, and thus increased concern, as determined by lower rape myth acceptance at post­-test and willingness to seek out further information on SA minimization. In order to incite change, men need to feel personally responsible for the issue of SA.

https://doi.org/10.24839/1089-4136.JN14.4.148


Parent Response Type Affects Psychological Adjustment in Children

Laura A. Oramas, Melody A. Whiddon, and Marilyn J. Montgomery, Florida International University

ABSTRACT: This study examined the associations between parent responsiveness to children during a parent-child play task and children’s psychological adjustment in 24 Hispanic mother-child dyads. The Noldus Observer was used for systematic coding of parent-child behavioral interaction. The Semistructured Clinical Interview for Children and Adolescents (McConaughy & Achenbach, 2001) assessed child psychological adjustment. Correlational analyses revealed that greater maternal responsiveness was positively correlated with child psychological adjustment in this Hispanic population. The results of this study suggest implications for early areas of intervention as well as future research in the area of parental responsiveness, including specific parental behaviors and parent-child interactive qualities, which may have the potential to improve child psychological adjustment.

https://doi.org/10.24839/1089-4136.JN14.4.158


Face Your Fears: Attentional Biases Toward Emotional Faces Depend on Specific Low-Level Anxiety Symptoms

Aaron Shilling, Western Illinois University; Sheryl Reminger, University of Illinois at Springfield

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of emotional facial expressions, social anxiety, and negative self-evaluation on attention in a nonclinical sample (N = 35). Participants completed the Self-Consciousness Scale (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (Leary, 1983), and a dot-probe task that measured attentional biases for emotional facial expressions. Results showed that attentional biases for emotional faces were moderated by social anxiety, specifically the negative self-evaluation component. These findings support Rapee and Heimberg’s (1997) model of social phobia and Fenigstein et al.’s (1975) theory of social anxiety. Furthermore, they elucidate the components of social anxiety sufficient to direct visual attention and suggest that social anxiety should be controlled in future research.

https://doi.org/10.24839/1089-4136.JN14.4.166


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