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Psi Chi Journal Spring 2010


Volume 15.1 | Spring 2010
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

Tell Me More: Online Versus Face-to-Face Communication and Self-Disclosure

Olivia E. Bruss and Jennifer M. Hill, Wisconsin Lutheran College

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of type of communication (online or face-to- face) on self-disclosure. A group of 58 college students engaged in a conversation either face-to-face or using an instant-messaging system. Those who conversed online reported a significantly higher amount of personal and perceived partner self-disclosure as measured by an adapted version of the Revised Self-Disclosure Scale (Wheeless, 1978) than those who conversed face-to-face. Implications regarding online communication and its impact on counseling, educational, and personal relationships are discussed.

Children’s Attention to Rules in Sorting Cards: Distinguishing Between Theories of Cognitive Development

Karen E. Haas, Marilyn R. De Mers, Brittany Fulton, Katherine N. Terrana, and Joseph J. Horton, Grove City College

ABSTRACT: The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task (Zelazo, Frye, & Rapus, 1996) is a common method for studying children’s redirection of attention. Children are asked to sort cards, once based on the dimension of shape and once on color. Four-year-olds typically perform well on both aspects of the task, but 3-year-olds fail the second aspect. We observed 96 children and modified the DCCS task to examine the effect of novel stimulus cards on 3-year-olds' performance and test the validity of the Cognitive Complexity and Control (Zelazo et al., 1996) and the Attentional Inertia (AI; Diamond, Kirkham, & Amso, 2002) theories. Results of the modified task showed that 3-year-olds performed as well as 4-year-olds, consistent with the AI theory.

The Effects of Stereotype Threat and Locus of Control on Performance

LaTrice Montgomery, Berea College

ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that stereotype threat can influence performance regardless of race. The present study investigated if and how locus of control affects the relationship between stereotype threat and task performance. After completing a demographic questionnaire and Rotter’s (1966) locus of control survey, 28 African American and 32 White undergraduate students read instructions for a computer game played in either a stereotype threat or control condition. Independent samples t tests suggested that stereotype threat diminished performance, regardless of participants' race. The restricted range of locus of control scores did not allow for consideration of the question of the influence of this independent variable. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

Hemispheric Differences in Identifying Emotionally Expressive Body Movements

Ishabel Vicaria, Stetson University

ABSTRACT: This study combined 2 fields of research: the expression of emotions through body movements and hemispheric differences in the perception of emotion. Sixty participants were divided into 6 groups according to visual field exposure (Left, Right, Center) and type of stimuli (Still Image or Video). Each group saw emotion stimuli depicting happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, and anger. Video groups were significantly more accurate in identifying the correct emotion than the Still Images groups. In comparison to the Right Visual Field groups, there was a trend for higher accuracy ratings by the Left Visual Field groups. Male participants were more accurate than the female participants. The results provide support for a right hemispheric superiority in identifying nonverbally expressed emotions.

Waking the Green-Eyed Monster: Attachment Styles and Jealousy Induction in Romantic Relationships

Diane Whitson, Saint Louis University; Brent A. Mattingly, Ashland University

ABSTRACT: Although the majority of individuals involved in romantic relationships report having experienced jealousy, relatively little research has examined what factors lead individuals to attempt to induce jealousy in their romantic partners. We examined how adult attachment is related to individuals' jealousy-induction tendencies. Results indicated that (a) jealousy-induction was positively related to both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance, (b) specific attachment styles (i.e., secure, preoccupied, dismissing, fearful) were not associated with more or fewer jealousy-inducing behaviors, and (c) women tend to induce jealousy more than men. Because jealousy is negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, these findings suggest that insecurely attached individuals' behaviors may actually be counterproductive in that they are unintentionally making their partners less happy with the relationship.

Types of Victimization Experienced by Men and Women That Influence Rape Empathy

Lana K. Briggs and Suzanne L. Osman, Salisbury University

ABSTRACT: In the current study we predicted that four types of victimization experience (sexual contact; attempted rape; sexual coercion; rape) would increase rape empathy for a victim compared with no such experience. We also predicted that women would report greater empathy than men. Participants were 80 men and 70 women undergraduates. Hypotheses were not fully supported. Results showed that only participants who reported having experienced rape were more empathetic than those who reported no victimization, p = .009, but that women did report more empathy than men, p < .0001. Rape experience may allow one to fully identify with and understand the perspective of a rape victim. Other ways to conceptualize victimization are offered.

Neural Response to Emotional Stimuli of Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Significance

Joaquin de Rojas and Elizabeth A. Kensinger, Boston College

ABSTRACT: Responses to affective stimuli are often discussed within an evolutionary framework, yet not all affective information has evolutionary significance. The present fMRI study compared neural activity to affective stimuli of phylogenetic (e.g., spider, smiling baby) versus ontogenetic (e.g., gun, money) origin. We hypothesized that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)—a region required to learn the affective import of information—would be more active when participants processed ontogenetic versus phylogenetic stimuli. The results supported this hypothesis, and the distinction held both for fear- and pleasure-evoking stimuli. These results suggest that the neural mechanisms supporting emotion processing can differ based on a stimulus's evolutionary import, with frontal processes recruited when a stimulus's salience is ontogenetic.

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