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Psi Chi Journal Fall 2013


Volume 18.3 | Fall 2013
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

Emerging Adults' Psychosocial Adjustment: Does a Best Friend's Gender Matter?

Carolyn McNamara Barry, Lauren Chiravalloti, and Elizabeth May, Loyola University Maryland; Stephanie D. Madsen, McDaniel College

ABSTRACT: Friendship quality has been associated with psychosocial adjustment throughout the lifespan. Although emerging adults’ friendships differ by gender, little is known about how the gender of emerging adults and their friends are related to their psychosocial adjustment. Undergraduate students from 4 U.S. universities (N = 792) completed an online study. Women reported higher levels of self-worth, identity commitment, social physique anxiety, and friendship quality than did men, F(5, 779) = 10.12, p < .001, η2 = .06. A gender x friend’s gender interaction was found, F(5, 779) = 3.22, p = .007, η2 = .02, such that women with male friends reported lower levels of self­-worth and more social physique anxiety compared to those with female friends, and men with female friends reported lower levels of self-­worth compared to those with male friends. Thus, gender differences existed in emerging adults’ psychosocial adjustment, but the gender of friends also aided in explaining that adjustment.

Parental Involvement in a Childcare Center: Accessing Predictors of School-Based Involvement

Kosha D. Bramesfeld, Ann C. Carrick, Stephanie L. Lessmeier, Abbie N. Nicoloff, Molly E. Keier, and Stephanie A. Metter, Maryville University of St. Louis

ABSTRACT: The Hoover­-Dempsey and Sandler (1995, 1997, 2005) model of parental involvement proposes that a parent’s motivational beliefs, school climate, and life context variables affect a parent’s decision to become involved in his/her child’s education. This model has been tested at the elementary and secondary school level, but few studies have tested the model in childcare centers for infants, toddlers, and preschool-­aged children. We used this model to identify and examine factors that predicted school­-based parental involvement at a nonprofit childcare center located in the Midwestern United States. Within the context of a childcare center, school­-based parental involvement was defined as participating in childcare­-sponsored events, volunteering at the childcare center, and participating in shared governance activities. Motivational beliefs, specific invitations for involvement, parent­-to­-parent relationships, and time for involvement emerged as significant and positive correlates of parental involvement, ps < .05. However, when all of the significant predictors were considered simultaneously in a multiple regression analysis, we found that motivational beliefs was the strongest predictor of the actual frequency of events attended, β = .32, p = .05. We recommend that childcare centers foster parents’ motivational beliefs about the importance of involvement.

Gendered Feelings of Power and Helpfulness

Elizabeth A. Holleman, Cayce Cheairs, and Kathleen E. Cook, Seattle University

ABSTRACT: Implicit social cognition research has shown that power promotes action-­taking. Yet, power also reduces perspective-­taking, a cognitive function associated with prosocial behavior. This experiment investigated the effect of power primes on helpfulness. The researchers hypothesized that participants primed with high power would be less helpful, on average, than those primed with low power. Fifty­-nine college students were randomly assigned to either the high or low power condition and were asked by one of the two researchers to write about a personal experience related to power. The study gave participants (n = 59) two opportunities to help: donating earnings from the study to charity and picking up pencils spilled by the other researcher. The results showed no significant main effect for power or gender on either measure of helpfulness. There was, however, a significant interaction in a 3­-way ANOVA between power prime, gender, and researcher in the role of pencil­-dropper on helping with the pencils, p = .007, ηp2 = .14. There was also a significant interaction between power and gender on helping with the pencils, p = .008, ηp2 = .14. Results are discussed in terms of action-­taking and gender role expectations. These findings illustrate the necessity of examining gender when looking at how power affects behavior because power can elicit different mental states and emotions in men and women.

Facebook as a Mechanism for Social Support and Mental Health Wellness

Trey Asbury and Schawn Hall, Texas Woman's University

ABSTRACT: The Internet has become increasingly popular as a source of news, entertainment and communication over the last 2 decades. Online social networks, such as Facebook®, are especially popular with college students; 9 out of 10 have a social account and average 47 min of screen time per day interacting with others (Sheldon, 2008). The present study sought to determine whether the use of Facebook constitutes a perceived social support for college students. Higher perceived levels of social support were found for frequent Facebook users as compared to low frequency users t(125) = 9.82, p < .001, estimated power .87. Frequency of social media was also related to wellness and perceived relationship with family. Geographic distance from home, years in college, and sex were not related to the use of the online social network. Implications for future research in the area of online usage and wellness are discussed.

Social Networking, Religious Similarity, and Moral Reasoning: Potential Causes of Revolution

Kayla Jordan, Evangel University

ABSTRACT: Given the recent outbreak of revolutions, understanding the causes of revolutions would be beneficial for many people. In this experimental study, social networking, religious similarity, and moral reasoning were examined as possible causes of revolution. Participants were divided into four groups and were exposed to a conservative political model organization, which advocated using revolutionary behaviors to support political positions. Each model group differed in its religious background and use of social networking. All participants completed the Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT­2; Rest, Narvaez, Thoma, & Bebeau, 1999). Based on the results of the DIT­2, participants were placed into one of three schema groups: personal interests, maintaining norms, or postconventional. A three-­way MANOVA confirmed a significant triple interaction effect in predicting willingness to protest utilizing the factors of 2 (social networking) x 2 (religious similarity) x 3 (moral reasoning), F(2, 152) = 3.342, p = .038, ηp2 = .042, Observed Power = .625. This finding supports the complexity and multiplicity of the causes of revolution.

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