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Psi Chi Journal Winter 2013


Volume 18.4 | Winter 2013
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

The Role of Mood and Personality Type on Creativity

Paige D. Naylor, JongHan Kim, and Terry F. Pettijohn III, Coastal Carolina University

ABSTRACT: Research generally supports the view that positive mood results in higher creativity. The purpose of these two studies was to examine the effect of mood and personality type on creativity in problem solving. Mood was manipulated (positive versus negative) differently and personality type was measured (extravert versus introvert) consistently in both studies using a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 16) and women (n = 57). An interaction effect between mood and personality type was hypothesized. Extraverts in a positive mood were predicted to have higher creativity scores, but introverts in a negative mood were predicted to have higher creativity scores. Results supported the hypothesis. Extraverts in a positive mood had higher scores of creativity and introverts’ scores were higher when in a negative mood for both Study 1 (p = .02) and Study 2 (p = .01). These results are useful in understanding how mood and personality can influence creativity.

Spatial Attention in a Classroom Is Influenced by Egocentric Thinking

Anika Shah, Lindsey Spiegelman, and Ann Renken, University of Southern California

ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of egocentric thinking on spatial attention within a classroom setting. Seventy-four undergraduates (52 women) of traditional college age were recruited through a research participation pool at a large university in Los Angeles, CA. Participants were randomly assigned to write for 3 min about the location of objects in the front of a classroom from either an egocentric (object-self relations) or an allocentric (object-object relations) perspective. Although more left-located objects were described overall, F(1, 59) = 5.92, p = .018, ηp2 = .09, participants who wrote from an egocentric perspective described significantly more objects located to their left than right, t(23) = 3.26, p = .003, d = 0.66; whereas, those who wrote from an allocentric perspective described a statistically equal number of objects to both sides, t(36) = 0.10, p = .922. Our findings are consistent with previous work showing right-hemisphere dominance under the egocentric frame of reference and are the first to show that priming an egocentric perspective increases leftward attention in a naturalistic context of a classroom setting. Future research could examine the effects of frame of reference on spatial attention in other everyday contexts, such as driving or viewing internet content.

The Impact of Music and Mood on Creative Thinking

Kathryn T. Callaghan and Claire M. Growney, University of Mary Washington

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the links among music, mood, and creative thinking. A total of 72 university students watched two video clips to induce certain moods (happy or sad) and then completed a divergent thinking task while listening to happy or sad music. Overall, there were 4 mood and music conditions. Two conditions were congruent (happy/happy or sad/sad), and the other two were incongruent (happy/sad or sad/happy). It was hypothesized that participants in the congruent conditions would show more creativity on the divergent thinking task, and participants in the incongruent conditions would show less creativity on the same task. There was a significant interaction between induced mood and music in the analysis of fluency of responses, F(1, 64) = 5.15, p = .027, R2 = .07. When in a sad mood, people gave fewer responses if they listened to music that was incongruent with their mood. However, the fluency of responses of the people in the happy mood condition was not significantly affected by mood-music congruency. Overall, the findings implied that congruency affected creative ability especially for those people in a sad mood.

A Comparison of Women in Lesbian and Heterosexual Dual-Income Couples: Communication and Conflict

Elizabeth Brashier, Jennifer L. Hughes, and Rachel E. Cook, Agnes Scott College

ABSTRACT: In light of the current dual-income literature, we examined whether lesbians in dual-income relationships would experience (a) greater domestic communication, (b) greater social support from their partners, (c) less work-family conflict, and (d) less family-work conflict than heterosexual women in dual-income relationships. A sample of 132 heterosexual and 112 lesbian women completed a paper survey about domestic communication, social support, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict. Lesbian women in dual-income couples experienced greater domestic communication, t(234) = 4.119, p < .021, d = 0.62 and greater social support, t(239) = 6.082, p = .001, d = 0.79 than heterosexual women in dual-income couples. Our hypotheses involving work-family and family-work conflict were not supported. These findings could be relevant for therapists working with lesbian couples because they could emphasize possible strengths in their relationships.

The Terror of Pregnancy: The Origin of Ambivalent Attitudes

Leah A. Fredman and Vincent Prohaska, Lehman College, City University of New York

ABSTRACT: Research on Terror Management Theory (TMT; Goldenberg, Goplen, Cox, & Arndt, 2007) has offered an explanation for the negative views toward uniquely feminine physical features, as well as the ambivalence and prejudice displayed toward pregnant women. Participants read an essay on either creatureliness, uniqueness, or no essay, and then they completed inventories assessing negative attitudes toward corporal attributes. Attitudes toward semen and menstrual blood were found to be undifferentiated, p = .95. Next, in a modification of Goldenberg et al., participants rated the offensiveness of a photograph of a pregnant or nonpregnant model, as well as her competence level and whether the image evoked anger. Prior findings of increased offensiveness and lower competence evaluations of a pregnant female model, as a product of priming the similarities of humans and animals, were not replicated. Participants who did not read an essay displayed increased anger toward the pregnant model (p = .04, ηp2 = .07), indicating that Ambivalent Sexism Theory may provide a strong conceptual framework for the explanation of ambivalent attitudes toward pregnant women.

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