|Psi Chi Journal Fall 2015|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 20.3 | Fall 2015
The Effects of Stereotype Threat and Power on Women's and Men's Outcomes in Face-to-Face and E-Mail Negotiations
Jasmine McCormick and Wendy L. Morris, McDaniel College
ABSTRACT: Stereotypes that women are less assertive and competitive than men lead women to experience stereotype threat in salary negotiations (Tellhed & Björklund, 2011), resulting in sex differences in salaries. The present experiment tested whether the effects of stereotype threat on negotiations are moderated by variables that may decrease the salience of sex such as dyad composition (same vs. mixed-sex), mode of communication (face-to-face vs. e-mail), and power. Ninety-six undergraduate participants (37 men, 59 women) negotiated for a hypothetical salary as well as an actual monetary award. As predicted, stereotype threat negatively affected women’s outcomes and positively affected men’s outcomes in mixed-sex pairs but not in same-sex pairs, Wald Chi-Square = 9.85, p = .002. Interestingly, there were no differences between the face-to-face and e-mail negotiations; both forms of negotiation were affected by stereotype threat in mixed-sex pairs. The basic findings of the present study were consistent with past research; participants assigned to a position of power were more successful in the negotiation regardless of their sex, Wald Chi-Square = 22.74, p < .001, d = 0.49. Limitations, implications, and possible ways to reduce the effects of stereotype threat are discussed.
Matthew Pageau, Saint Joseph's University, Seth Surgan, Worcester State University
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of distortions in time perception and the complexity of a task on mood and enjoyment of the task. Further, researchers sought to study factors that may affect time perception (e.g., immersion, task complexity, objective task duration). Seventy-seven undergraduate students participated in 1 of 6 conditions within a 2 (complexity) x 3 (duration) design. Although the experimental manipulations did not create the anticipated effects, subsequent analyses supported the hypotheses that, when time was perceived as passing quickly, participants experienced more positive mood change, t(75) = 3.92, p < .001, η2 = .17. Further, immersion was positively correlated with distortions in time perception, r(75) = .40, p < .001, r2 = .16, and mood change, r(75) = .23, p = .02, r2 = .05. Regression analysis revealed that distortions in time perception mediated the relationship between immersion and mood change. Theoretical implications for self-perception theory and the concept of flow are discussed.
Molly Ramsden, Castleton State College
ABSTRACT: Moral dilemmas present an opportunity to examine the impact of distance on the acceptability of violent actions. The high-distance trolley and low-distance footbridge scenarios contrast low- and high-distance killing situations. Using these dilemmas, I tested the mitigating effect of distance on the acceptability of violence. Following a cognitive load task, decision-making centers in the brain switch from rational to emotional. Using the high-distance trolley and low-distance footbridge scenarios, I tested the impact of cognitive load and distance on the acceptability of the decision to kill 1 person, saving 5. When cognitive load increased, the acceptability of the decision to kill decreased in the trolley scenario, but not in the footbridge scenario, F(1, 106) = 4.68, p = .033, ηp2 = 0.042. Results suggested that, by depleting the rational brain with the cognitive task, the emotional brain made the decision not to kill. This research may be extended to gun violence because the presence of a gun typically places a shooter at a higher distance from a victim, which is analogous to the distance in the trolley scenario. Consequently, as in the trolley scenario, the acceptability of gun violence may be reduced as cognitive load is increased.
Glenn B. Little and Karl Wuensch, East Carolina University
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine what effect facilitating and debilitating anxiety have on creativity when moderated by emotional states. Prior research into the relationship between anxiety and creativity has suggested that a 2-factor model should be applied to further study (Byron & Khazanchi, 2011). It was hypothesized that debilitating anxiety would be negatively associated with creative performance on a caption-writing task and that this relationship would be moderated by an emotional state. Participants in the study were undergraduates taking Introduction to Psychology (N = 102). After taking the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and a modified scale from Alpert and Haber (1960), participants were asked to write captions for 2 provided photographs drawn from the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008). The 1st photo for all participants, a priming photo of either pleasant or unpleasant valance and high or moderate arousal, preceded a neutral photo moderate in valance and arousal. Statistical analysis of the 2 judges’ ratings on the creativity of the neutral captions yielded high interrater reliability. Although the findings did not support the hypothesis, facilitating anxiety significantly positively correlated to creativity (r = .27) and inversely correlated to debilitating anxiety (r = .40). Debilitating anxiety significantly correlated with anxiety as measured by the GAD-7 (r = .53). Findings suggested that facilitating anxiety, not debilitating anxiety, has a significant effect on creative ability as measured by the caption-writing task.
Amanda L. Young, Lenoir-Rhyne University
ABSTRACT: The present research sought to test the relationship between career-oriented information such as college major and perceived romantic desirability. The research tested 3 hypotheses, all based on evolutionary theory. The first was that people with lower earning potential would receive lower desirability ratings than people with higher earning potential. The second was that more career information presented with the picture would increase the difference seen in the first hypothesis. The third was that career-oriented information would have a larger impact on ratings given by women than by men. A pilot study was performed to select the pictures with the most average level of attractiveness to include on the stimulus sheet. Only the first hypothesis was supported, and it was supported for three dimensions of romantic desirability: short-term relationship desirability, F(1, 111) = 5.66, p = .019, ηp2 = .049, long-term relationship desirability, F(1, 111) = 4.22, p = .042, ηp2 = .037, and physical attractiveness, F(1, 111) = 9.70, p = .002, ηp2 = .080.
Natalie Peters, Lucie Holmgreen, and Debra Oswald, Marquette University
ABSTRACT: Advertisements are a common venue by which sexist stereotypes are disseminated, and these stereotypes often reinforce the link between women and the domestic role. Gender-based humor is a particular strategy that advertisements may use, allowing for the perpetuation of sexist stereotypes under the mentality that “a joke is just a joke.” The present study provided a content analysis of responses to a pair of trouser care instructions reading, “Give it to your woman, it’s her job.” We aimed to determine the ways in which online commentators responded to this statement. Comments were, foremost, labeled as either endorsement or dissent, and those characterized as endorsement of the joke were categorized by one or more of the following themes: hostile sexism toward women, benevolent sexism toward women, hostile sexism toward men, benevolent sexism toward men, cavalier humor beliefs, denial of sexism, and social dominance orientation. Results indicated that most individuals (68.5%) responded positively to the statement either by expressing perceived humor, affirming the validity of the presented stereotype, or exhibiting hostility toward women who took offense. Furthermore, responses to the label were often characterized by cavalier humor beliefs (25.1%) as well as hostile sexism toward women (10.8%). These justifications likely serve to reaffirm the presence of sexist prejudice in a climate that might otherwise provide sanctions against offensive remarks. In addition, it is likely that many of the comments served to deter men and women who might otherwise attempt to challenge the status quo.
Internal Martial Arts Training and the Reduction of Hostility and Aggression in Martial Arts Students
James Hernandez and Kathryn B. Anderson, Our Lady of the Lake University
ABSTRACT: Traditional martial arts focus on both external (i.e., striking and kicking) and internal (breathing and self-control) techniques to teach a balance between physical and mental techniques. The present study tested whether the type of martial arts training affects state hostility and aggressive behavior, and whether this relation differs based on trait aggression within the framework of the General Aggression Model (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). Following a martial arts lesson in external techniques, half of the students at 2 dojos were taught internal breathing techniques, and the other half were not. State hostility and aggression, measured by the number of exercises they would have another student do if they were the instructor, were subsequently measured. High trait aggressive participants reported higher state hostility and rated that they would inflict more push-ups, sit-ups, and leg lifts on others than did low trait aggressive participants (r values ranged from .33–.65). Participants who practiced internal techniques reported less state hostility (M = 1.85, SD = 0.61) than did those engaged in external (and not internal) training (M = 2.17, SD = 0.65), F(1, 46) = 4.37, p = .042, η2p = .087. The internal technique group also allocated slightly fewer push-ups and sit-ups (ps = .068, .081) than did the external-only training group. No significant interaction was found between trait aggression and type of technique (p > .05). Including internal techniques in martial arts training may ameliorate the effect that this training may have on aggressive impulses and behavior.