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Psi Chi Journal Winter 2016


Volume 21.4 | Winter 2016
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Psi Chi Journal Editorial Transition

Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez , Utah State University, Debi Brannan, Western Oregon University

Preschool Attendance as a Predictor of Self-Regulation in Kindergarteners

Jedd P. Alejandro, Andrew M. Leslie, Brooke C. Manley, Amy F. Rivas, Dominic M. Wiltermood, and Charlene K. Bainum, Pacific Union College

ABSTRACT: Research has found that early childhood education positively impacts the academic success and educational achievement of children all the way through early adulthood (Barnett & Frede, 2010; Campbell & Ramey, 1994; Lamy, 2013). Tough (2012) suggested that preschools help children develop self-regulation skills that are necessary for educational success. It was hypothesized that preschool attendance would predict higher self-regulation than nonattendance, and that girls would have higher self-regulation than boys, as measured by behavioral scores and teacher ratings of self-regulation. Participants included 37 kindergartners. Preschool attendees and nonattendees were tested by condition-blind researchers on 2 subtests of the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment. Additionally, teachers used items from the Children’s Self-Control Scale to rate participants. A 2 x 2 (Condition x Sex) Analysis of Variance was performed on the Balance Beam, the Gift Wrap Scores, and the teacher ratings of behavioral and cognitive self-control. The Balance Beam Scores were higher in the preschool condition than in the nonpreschool condition, F(1, 33) = 6.18, p = .02, η2 = .15. Also, the Gift Wrap Scores were higher in the preschool condition than in the nonpreschool condition, F(1, 33) = 10.69, p = .003, η2 = .24. Teacher’s ratings of behavioral self-control for girls was higher than for boys, F(1, 33) = 6.94, p = .01, η2 = .17. Also teacher’s ratings of cognitive self-control for girls was higher than for boys, F(1, 33) = 7.73, p < .001, η2 = .19. The benefit of preschool education for the acquisition of self-regulation is addressed.

Linking Cyber Incivility With Job Performance Through Job Satisfaction: The Buffering Role of Positive Affect

Gary W. Giumetti, Lauren A. Saunders, Jeralyn P. Brunette, Franca M. DiFrancesco, and Paul G. Graham, Quinnipiac University

ABSTRACT: Incivility at work has the potential to impact both individual (e.g., psychological health) and organizational outcomes (e.g., job performance and turnover). In line with Affective Events Theory, the current study proposed a moderated mediation model wherein employee job satisfaction would mediate the relation between cyber incivility and job performance, and trait positive affect would buffer the negative impact of cyber incivility on performance. Two-hundred twenty participants completed measures of cyber incivility, job satisfaction, job performance, positive affect, negative affect, and quantitative workload. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that cyber incivility was negatively related to job satisfaction (ß = -.19, p = .006), as well as job performance (ß = -.14, p = .037), while controlling for negative affect. Additionally, results of mediation analyses indicated that job satisfaction served as a mediator of the cyber incivility-job performance relationship because employees who experienced cyber incivility reported lower job satisfaction, which was linked with lower job performance (indirect effect = -.020, 95% CIs = -.041, -.009; Sobel z = -2.36, p = .02). Trait positive affect moderated the relationship between cyber incivility and job performance such that the performance of those individuals with higher positive affect was not as negatively impacted by the cyber incivility as individuals with lower positive affect (b = .08, p = .044). The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the wired 21st century world of work.

Does Fitness Priming Influence Self- and Other-Judgements of Personal and Physical Characteristics?

Kathleen M. Burris, Sheila Brownlow, and Katherine C. Lins, Catawba College

ABSTRACT: We examined how priming the potential benefits of moderate or extreme fitness in advice articles influenced self- and other-judgments of internal and external qualities. After reading articles to activate primes of hyperfitness, moderation in fitness, or pet ownership as a control, men and women participants (N = 84) provided personality ratings of self-esteem and perfectionism, provided their attitudes toward health, fitness, dieting, and the ideal appearance of men and women, and also indicated degree of preference for muscularity and slimness in men and women. Men’s and women’s preferences for slimness in women decreased after reading articles on moderation, both ps < .046, both η2 > .14. Self-esteem increased as a function of article primes for hyperfitness, p = .027, η2 = .09. Muscularity attractiveness and perfectionism were not influenced by article primes. Results suggested that certain types of media can be a constructive influence on self- and other-ideal appearance and personal qualities.

Acculturative Family Distancing, Religious Support, and Psychological Well-Being Among Young Adult Eastern European Immigrants in Western Washington

Tatyana V. Lats, Paul Youngbin Kim, and David A. Diekema, Seattle Pacific University

ABSTRACT: Researchers have begun to explore how factors such as religious support and discrepancy in parents’ and children’s acculturation to their host country (acculturation gap or acculturative family distancing) affect various immigrant groups and generations. However, the body of research on these topics remains underdeveloped. This cross-sectional study investigated the relations between perceived acculturative family distancing, religious support, and well-being in a sample (N = 200) of Eastern European immigrant young adults. We predicted that lower levels of acculturative family distancing and higher levels of religious support would both be positively related to well-being. We also predicted that religious support would moderate the relation between acculturative family distancing and well-being, such that religious support would protect against the detrimental influence of acculturative family distancing on well-being. Participants completed an online survey containing demographic questions andmeasures assessing the 3 study variables. Both acculturative family distancing (B = .25, t = 3.50, p = .001) and religious support (B = .26, t = 2.81, p = .005) significantly predicted well-being. Additionally, religious support protected against the detrimental association of acculturative family distancing with well-being (B of Acculturative Family Distancing x Religious Support = .12, t = 2.18, p = .030), but only when the acculturation gap was small. Future research should focus on developing acculturation gap distress prevention and intervention methods.

Implicit Person Theory and Feedback Environment Interact to Shape Undergraduate Research Relationships

Ian M. Katz, Saint Louis University, Alison L. O'Malley, Butler University

ABSTRACT: We examined undergraduate researchers’ perceptions of the malleability of human traits and aspects of these students’ relationships with their faculty research mentors. Undergraduate research students (N = 94) completed an online survey to capture their chronic implicit person theory, perceived feedback environment with their faculty research mentor, and whether they planned to continue research collaboration in the future. We observed no significant direct relationship between implicit person theory and trust. However, students’ perceptions of the feedback environment significantly moderated the relationship between a positive feedback environment and students’ intention to continue collaboration with the faculty member, F(3, 88) = 15.88, R2 = .35, p < .001. This suggests that students perceiving a positive feedback environment will be more likely than students perceiving a negative feedback environment to continue collaboration with their faculty research advisor. We discuss future research ideas that should capture data from both students and their faculty research advisors to understand this relationship more holistically.

Effects of Password Type and Memory Techniques on User Password Memory

Lezlie Y. España, Wisconsin Lutheran College

ABSTRACT: In an attempt to examine factors that increase the likelihood of remembering a user password, the memory technique of chunking was tested on different password types. College students, aged 18 to 22, used a given login (username and password) to play a 3-round word scramble game online. The type of password (multiword passphrase and standard password) was manipulated, as well as the strategy for remembering (chunking or no chunking). After the last round, participants’ memory for passwords was tested. Results showed that the effect of chunking on memory for passwords depended on the type of password. Chunking had a negative impact on memory for multiword passphrases but a positive impact on memory for standard passwords, F(1, 53) = 12.74, p = .001, partial η2 = .20. Implications regarding the use of memory techniques in user interfaces to improve memory for passwords and the impact of such techniques on personal and professional use are discussed.

Examining the Reliability and Convergent Validity of IPARTheory Measures and Their Relation to Ethnic Attitudes in Guatemala

Amanda Faherty, Clark University; Amber Eagan, Murray State University; Brien K. Ashdown, Hobart & William Smith Colleges; Carrie M. Brown, Agnes Scott College; and Olivia Hanno, Hobart & William Smith Colleges

ABSTRACT: According to interpersonal acceptance-rejection theory (IPARTheory), parental acceptance is fundamentally important to healthy development. IPARTheory has been validated around the world, but there has been relatively little IPARTheory research conducted in Latin America. The first purpose of our research was to extend the reliability and convergent validity of measures of IPARTheory (perceived acceptance and rejection from parental figures, psychological maladjustment) among a Guatemalan sample. Because of Guatemala’s unique situation due to the relative fluidity of ethnic identity of the population and history of conflict between the two main ethnic groups of Ladinos and indigenous Maya people, we also examined how attitudes toward indigenous Maya people and Ladinos were related to participants’ perceived acceptance-rejection from parental figures. Participants were 62 students (75.8% women) from a public university in Guatemala who each completed a paper-and-pencil survey. Correlations ranging from 0.56 to 0.91 (p < .001) among the subscales of the IPARTheory measures, via strong Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.69 to 0.96, and correlations between IPARTheory measures and ethnic prejudice ranging from 0.26 to 0.34, provided support for the reliability and convergent validity of IPARTheory measures in Guatemala. The findings also established a relationship between parental acceptance-rejection and ethnic prejudice. Our study took an initial step in establishing IPARTheory in Guatemala and its connection to ethnic attitudes. Further research should establish IPARTheory measures in other Latin American countries, as well as explore connections between IPARTheory and other social psychological constructs.

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