|Psi Chi Journal Summer 2017|
PSI CHI JOURNAL
Volume 22.2 | Summer 2017
ABSTRACT: Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) were developed in response to a historically demonstrated need for ethical guidance and accountability in research with human subjects. The inhumane and unethical treatment of prisoners of war and underrepresented populations in the pre-IRB era are the antithesis of today’s national and international acts, codes, and declarations. Over the last five decades of IRB-reviewed research, several concerns about the IRB process have been raised. In this editorial, we review common concerns regarding the scope and functioning of IRBs. We also review the updated federal Common Rule, effective January 2018, and discuss how some of the reviewed concerns will be addressed in the update. Lastly, we end with recommendations for collaborating with IRBs. These recommendations are not tips on how to circumvent the review process but rather reflective and action-oriented steps to engage the IRBs, which are allies, collaborators, and expert consultants in the research enterprise.
Nalyn Sriwattanakomen, Washington & Jefferson College
ABSTRACT: The present study explored the effects of sexist humor and rape jokes on behavior toward women and rape myth acceptance in both women and men. Prior studies have suggested that exposure to sexist humor leads men who are high in hostile sexism to behave in a discriminatory manner toward women, and feel less ashamed for doing so (Ford, Boxer, Armstrong, & Edel, 2008). It was therefore predicted that sexist and rape jokes would increase rape myth acceptance and sexist behavior. Participants were 96 undergraduates. In partial support of predictions, sexist jokes increased rape myth acceptance among high-hostile sexist men more than nonsexist jokes, F(1, 42) = 5.58, p = .02, ηp2 = .12. Additionally, among participants high in hostile sexism, sexist jokes increased rape myth acceptance more in men than in women, F(1, 42) = 4.97, p = .03, ηp2 = .11. However, there was no evidence to suggest that sexist jokes increased sexist behavior by making participants less likely to donate to a women’s organization. The implications of these empirical findings and participants’ qualitative responses to the topics of rape and sexism are discussed, and amendments to Ford and Ferguson’s (2004) prejudiced norm theory are proposed.
Dustin K. Shepler, Kevin P. Johnson, and Melanie A. Ho, Michigan School of Professional Psychology
ABSTRACT: Compared to heterosexual individuals, people who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) face unique stressors in life. In this exploratory study, the authors recruited attendees at a LGB Pride event to gain understanding regarding how sexual identity and gender are related to 2 components of sexual self-concept: sexual esteem and sexual anxiety. Results indicated that sexual esteem was negatively related to sexual anxiety (r = -.35, p < .001), women reported higher levels of sexual esteem than men (M = 31.30, SD = 6.40), and men (M = 17.14, SD = 7.20) reported higher levels of sexual anxiety than women (M = 15.10, SD = 6.80). No significant interaction effects between sexual identity and gender on sexual esteem and sexual anxiety were observed. Future research is needed to further understand how sexual orientation identity development influences sexual self-concept.
Samuel D. Spencer, Minnesota State University, Mankato
ABSTRACT: Although meta-analysis has revealed that individual differences in deception detection ability do exist, the relationship between personality traits and deception detection ability has not been as heavily researched (Aamodt & Custer, 2006). The Big Five model of personality is often used to investigate personality differences in deception detection ability (Elaad & Reizer, 2015; John & Srivastava, 1999). Elaad, Reizer, and Hirschberg (2006) found significant relationships between deception detection and openness to experience, agreeableness, and extraversion, respectively. The current study predicted that high levels of openness to experience, agreeableness, and extraversion would correlate with accuracy in a video clip deception detection task. The study was administered to 228 undergraduate students from a midwestern university, and yielded no significant correlations between overall accuracy on the deception detection task and openness to experience (r = .05, p = .47), agreeableness (r = .01, p = .87), or extraversion (r = .01, p = .85). An independent-sample t test did reveal that participants exhibited a significant truth bias, t(220) = 5.66, p < .001, d = .54. The concept of truth bias is explored through Levine’s (2014) Truth Default Theory. Explanations for the lack of significant findings and other methodological issues are also addressed. Due to the complex nature of deception, further inquiries could investigate different types of deception detection tasks. Future research could also explore differences in attitudes and beliefs related to deception in general among college students because personality traits may not serve as a reliable predictor of deception detection ability.
Namele Gutierrez, Elizabeth J. Krumrei-Mancuso, and Cindy Miller-Perrin, Pepperdine University
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine a possible relationship between religiousness and friendship quality through relational theory. We hypothesized that higher levels of religiousness would be positively correlated with friendship quality. Young adults (n = 118) from a small, Christian university participated in an online survey. We observed a main effect for religiousness of the participant and religiousness of the best friend being associated with greater support and depth in friendship, as well as an interaction between participants’ religiousness and best friends’ religiousness in regard to friendship support. The results indicated that participants’ best friends’ religiousness was a significant, positive predictor of support in friendships (r2 = .08). In addition, an interaction was observed between participants’ religiousness and their best friends’ religiousness in predicting support (r2 = .05). For participants low in religiousness, having a friend with higher levels of religiousness was associated with more support and depth in friendship, but for participants high in religiousness, having a friend with higher levels of religiousness was not associated with friendship qualities. Because friendship is instrumental in young adults’ development, it is important to evaluate religiousness as a possible factor that can positively impact friendships at this life stage.
Jaclyn M. Vancour and Marianne Fallon, Central Connecticut State University
ABSTRACT: Our primary goal was to examine associations between sexual debut (i.e., timing of first sexual intercourse) and romantic relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction within a relationship. A secondary goal was to compare these associations across biological sex and relationship status (currently in a relationship or reflecting on a previous relationship). We also examined whether sexual debut was related to the duration of a failed relationship. Undergraduate men and women who were currently in or had been in a physically intimate romantic relationship rated relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in their current or most recent relationship. Young adults who waited more than 2 months to have sexual intercourse reported higher relationship satisfaction than those who had sex earlier (p = .011, ηp2 = .03). However, no significant association was observed between sexual debut and sexual satisfaction (p = .123, ηp2 = .01). Further, sexual debut predicted the timing of relationship dissolution: Young adults who had sexual intercourse after 2 months reported longer relationships than those who had sex earlier (p = .006, ηp2 = .10). These patterns of results were comparable for men and women and across different forms of intercourse (oral or vaginal/anal). Our data support the sexual restraint theory (Busby, Carroll, & Willoughby, 2010), which claims that delaying sexual intercourse is associated with greater relationship satisfaction and success.
Lewie E. Moore II and Madelynn D. Shel, The University of Virginia's College at Wise
ABSTRACT: This study examined social and individual predictors of internalizing symptoms in college students, and in particular explored the indirect effects of mother and father support through self-esteem. A total of 123 college students completed self-reported online surveys measuring mother and father support, self-esteem, and internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety, withdrawal, and somatic symptoms). Students reported greater support from mothers compared to fathers, t(114) = 5.84, p < .001. On average, higher maternal (but not paternal) support (β = -0.25, p = .006) and self-esteem (β = -0.61, p < .001) were associated with lower internalizing symptoms. For women, self-esteem mediated the relationship between maternal support and internalizing symptoms, indicating that greater maternal support was associated with greater self-esteem, which in turn was associated with lower internalizing symptoms (F = 41.98, p < .001). However, this pathway was not significant for men. These results highlight the importance of exploring the influence of different sources of support separately, and suggest that improving self-esteem for both men and women, and improving maternal support for women may decrease risk for internalizing symptoms in emerging adulthood.
Sarah N. Lummis, Jennifer A. McCabe, Abigail L. Sickles, Rebecca A. Byler, Sarah A. Hochberg, Sarah E. Eckart, and Corinne E. Kahler Goucher College
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to examine the mnemonic effects of music on lyric recall, and to determine the role of musical expertise in the degree of memory benefit from information presented in a song. The experiment used a mixed-factor design to compare recall performance in music and nonmusic presentations, in addition to comparing performance of musicians and nonmusicians. Participants were presented with a set of lyrics in one of two encoding conditions: music (delivered as part of a song) or nonmusic (read aloud without music), followed by a free recall test. This process repeated 3 times, with a distractor task before the third recall test. One week later, participants were given an identical series of encoding and recall tasks in the other encoding condition, followed by a recall test for lyrics presented in the first session. Results showed significantly higher recall in the music condition during Session 1 as measured by words (verbatim), lines (gist), and clusters (chunking), ps < .05; for delayed recall, there was a music advantage as measured by words and clusters, ps < .05. Musicians showed significantly higher 1-week-delayed word and line recall, regardless of encoding condition, ps < .05. Several significant differences were found in relation to task load, suggesting that music-based learning may affect subjective experience, specifically task success and time pressure; further, musicians reported lower mental activity required when learning through music. Further applications of the study are discussed in an educational context.