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Psi Chi Journal Fall 2017


Volume 22.3 | Fall 2017
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Conquering APA Style: Advice From APA Style Experts

Jennifer L. Hughes, Agnes Scott College; Debi Brannan, Western Oregon University; Bradley Cannon, Psi Chi Central Office; Abigail A. Camden, Agnes Scott College; and Amber M. Anthenien, University of Houston

ABSTRACT: Learning and teaching APA style is often a challenge because of the detailed rules for the writing style. Resources that provide accurate information about APA style that are easy for learners to consume can be useful tools for students and instructors. The goal of this article is to provide information to help writers become more competent and comfortable with APA style. The first section of this article contains lists of common APA style mistakes that are made when papers are submitted for publication. Editors look for very specific APA formatting and style, and this section will cover these issues. Moreover, the second section includes a list of APA style rules frequently encountered by an APA style tutor. The third section has information to help students navigate writing assignments in a research methods class. The fourth section addresses additional APA style rules that many writers do not know about. Finally, this information can serve as a guide for writers to use when writing APA style papers.

The Workplace Interpersonal Conflict Scale: An Alternative in Conflict Assessment

Robert R. Wright, Brigham Young University–Idaho; Ashley E. Nixon, Willamette University; Zachary B. Peterson, Brigham Young University–Idaho; Sharon V. Thompson and Ryan Olson, Oregon Health & Science University; Scott Martin and Devon Marrott, Brigham Young University–Idaho

ABSTRACT: Interpersonal conflict is a prevalent workplace problem associated with numerous adverse consequences for both employees (e.g., depression, negative affect) and organizations (e.g., turnover, reduced productivity). However, many currently available self-report measures suffer from multiple methodological challenges that substantially hinder accurate and comprehensive measurement including the lack of specific elements of conflict identified by the literature subsequent to measure development, and a lack of rigorous empirical examination of psychometric properties. Thus, there is a need for a valid, psychometrically sound scale that can briefly capture perceptions of workplace interpersonal conflict in a contemporary work environment. The Workplace Interpersonal Conflict Scale (WICS) was developed to examine the frequency of conflict characteristics identified from a prior qualitative study of interpersonal conflict themes. In the current examination, we conducted an in-depth analysis of the psychometric properties of the WICS across 3 occupational samples including a cross-sectional study in health care (home care workers), a pre/post study in service (food service workers), and a large, diverse online sample (via MTurk). Results supported the 6-item WICS as a valid measure of workplace interpersonal conflict related to many other important workplace variables in the domains of work, health, and safety. Practical implications are presented and discussed. The WICS offers a promising measure that can be used in assessment, remediation, and prevention of noxious interpersonal cultures within the workplace.

/ / Personality Traits, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Severity of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

Sarah D. Arthurs and Josephine C. H. Tan, Lakehead University

ABSTRACT: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is used to regulate emotions and communicate distress. Research has examined its prevalence, forms, and functions, but little is known about its severity and the personality and cognitive correlates. This study examined personality traits and early maladaptive schemas in a Canadian nonclinical sample (N = 156, age M = 25.23 years, SD = 8.14 years) consisting of 3 equal-sized groups (n = 52; 43 women, 9 men), matched on sex and age, and that varied on NSSI severity: high NSSI, low NSSI, and control. Participants completed the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, Big Five Inventory, and Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire – Short Form. Results showed that high and low NSSI groups scored significantly higher than the control on neuroticism, and significantly lower on extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (Cohen’s d ranges between .50 and 1.53; p ranges from < .01 to < .001). High NSSI group was significantly less agreeable than Low NSSI group (Cohen’s d = .37; p = .04). Both high and low NSSI groups scored significantly higher on all early maladaptive schemas (Cohen’s d ranges between .63 and 1.71; p ranges from < .01 to < .001), except for self-sacrifice beliefs. High NSSI group was significantly higher than Low NSSI (Cohen’s d = .60; p = .005) and control (Cohen’s d = .69; p < .001) groups on beliefs related to unrelenting standards. Given the link between perfectionism and suicide, the findings support the importance of focusing on specific maladaptive beliefs in NSSI with implications for interventions.

Not Just Right Experiences in Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Jeremy P. Schmidt and Sara M. Stasik-O'Brien, Knox College

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the correlation between “not just right experiences” (NJREs)—a discomfort experienced when there is a discrepancy between one’s desired and current sensory state—and symptoms of syndromes classified as obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Participants were 319 nonclinical adults recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Results of bivariate correlational tests suggested that NJREs are associated with symptoms of several disorders beyond obsessive-compulsive disorder including hoarding disorder (r = .50, p < .001) and body dysmorphic disorder (r = .62, p < .001). In particular, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that elevated scores on a measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder symmetry symptoms were found to be the most significant predictor of self-reported NJREs, ß = .35, t(317) = 7.32, p < .001, followed by symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, ß = .29, t(317) = 6.98, p < .001. The expanding base of literature on NJREs and overarching implications are discussed.

Childhood Abuse and Adult Interpersonal Functioning: Analysis of Self-Defeating Beliefs and Binge Drinking as Mediators

Jacob E. Allen, Georgia State University; Daniel T. Rogers and Sharon M. Pearcey, Kennesaw State University

ABSTRACT: Childhood abuse predicts a variety of negative life outcomes including poor physical health, mental health issues, and risk-taking behaviors. Although previous studies have examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adult psychosocial functioning, more research is needed regarding generalized childhood abuse and interpersonal functioning later in life. There is a dearth of information regarding adult interpersonal functioning outside of the context of solely intimate partner relationships. The present study focused on the relationship between total childhood abuse and adult interpersonal problems including the role of self-defeating beliefs and binge-drinking behavior as mediators of this relationship. Participants consisted of 171 undergraduate students (125 women, 46 men). Multiple regression mediation analysis was conducted controlling for race/ethnicity, sex, and relationship status. Self-defeating beliefs were included in the nested regression model, and the beta coefficient for childhood abuse decreased from ß = .02 (p < .001) to ß = .01 (p = .032). In addition, self-defeating beliefs accounted for additional variation explained by the model (R2 = .49, ΔR2 = .46), F(10, 170) = 14.45, p < .001. These results indicated that self-defeating beliefs partially mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and interpersonal problems. Binge-drinking behavior did not appear to mediate the relationship. Implications and future direction are discussed.

The Effects of Mood on Writing Apprehension, Writing Self-Efficacy, and Writing Performance

Jared Vanhille, Bradley Gregory, and Grant Corser; Southern Utah University

ABSTRACT: Current research has suggested that writing apprehension and writing self-efficacy share a negatively correlated relationship, and writing self-efficacy and writing performance share a positively correlated relationship. Moreover, mood states have been shown to affect the ability of individuals to judge and perceive. The present study combined mood and writing research methodologies to examine the effect of mood on writing apprehension, writing self-efficacy, and writing performance. One hundred seventeen undergraduate participants were asked to write about a positive or negative life event, or a set of instructions to prime their mood, and then complete the Writing Apprehension Test, Writing Self-efficacy Test, and a timed essay. The results were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and multiple correlation tests. Although the results of the mood manipulation check indicated that the mood prime was effective in shifting mood states, there were no significant effects of mood on writing apprehension, F(2, 115) = 0.87, p = .421, η2 = .015, writing self-efficacy, F(2, 115) = 1.13, p = .328, η2 = .019, or writing performance, F(2, 115) = 0.07, p = .935, η2 = .001. As supported by previous research, writing self-efficacy and writing apprehension shared a significant moderate negative relationship, r = -.56, p < .05. The absence of mood effects on writing apprehension, writing self-efficacy, and writing performance may be attributed to participants’ awareness of their moods.

The Interaction Effect of Facial and Voice Attraction on Overall Perceived Attractiveness

Sheila Bonnough and Erin Moore, Stetson University

ABSTRACT: Physical attractiveness helps people choose mates. Although many individuals have faces and voices considered equally attractive, this is not always true, in that some people have one feature that is perceived as more attractive than the other. Zuckerman and Sinicropi (2011) found that, when the levels of facial and vocal attractiveness are mismatched, participants are more likely to rate the mismatch as less attractive than matched attractiveness due to the dissonance of believing that the unattractive feature does not belong with the attractive feature. Whereas Zuckerman and Sinicropi examined the disappointment people felt and personality traits associated with targets with different levels of physical and vocal attractiveness, the present study sought to determine how overall attractiveness is influenced by having targets with mismatched faces and voices. It also sought to identify differences in perceived facial and vocal attractiveness between sexes. College students (N = 112) were recruited using probability sampling. They viewed 14 face/voice combinations and rated them on overall attractiveness. There was a significant four-way interaction between participant sex, target sex, target facial attractiveness, and target voice attractiveness (p = .018, ηp2 = .05). Mismatched face/voice combinations were rated more attractive than matched unattractive face/ unattractive voice and less attractive than matched attractive face/attractive voice. Attractive face/unattractive voice pairs were rated more attractive than unattractive face/attractive voice pairs. Although women’s ratings were higher than men’s, the degree of difference varied by target. These findings demonstrated that, when evaluating individual attractiveness, faces are given more consideration than voices.

Rape Acknowledgement Status and Recency Since Rape as Correlates of College Women's Body Shame

Carolyne Paige Merwin and Suzanne L. Osman, Salisbury University

ABSTRACT: Rape has been linked to a number of negative outcomes for college women, including body shame. The current study examined body shame levels among female rape victims based on status of personal acknowledgment that they experienced rape (yes; no) and recency since rape (recent, within the past year; earlier, between age 14 and the past year). Undergraduates (n = 251 women who reported behaviors consistent with legal definitions of rape) completed the Sexual Experiences Survey and Body Shame subscale of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale. A significant interaction between acknowledgment status and recency since rape emerged, p = .02, partial n2 = .022. Results demonstrated that body shame was greater for women in the acknowledged-recent group than women in the acknowledged-earlier group, but women in the unacknowledged-recent and -earlier groups did not differ on body shame scores. Findings suggest that acknowledgment may be associated with lower body shame for women who have experienced rape less recently, and could have clinical and educational implications.

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