|Psi Chi Journal Special Issue 2018|
PSI CHI JOURNAL SPECIAL ISSUE
Volume 23.2 | Open Science Practices: Badges of Honor
Special Invited Editor Steven V. Rouse, Pepperdine University
ABSTRACT: Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research recently began awarding Open Science Badges to studies meeting criteria for Open Materials, Open Data, Preregistration, and Replication. To inaugurate this initiative, this special issue gathers eight articles that reflect a wide diversity of topics but have each earned one or more badges. Reflections about the challenges and value of each of these practices are provided.
Self-Esteem, Self-Disclosure, Self-Expression, and Connection on Facebook: A Collaborative Replication Meta-Analysis
Dana C. Leighton, Southern Arkansas University; Nicole Legate, Illinois Institute of Technology; Sara LePine, Gordon College; Samantha F. Anderson, University of Notre Dame; and Jon Grahe, Pacific Lutheran University
ABSTRACT: This replication meta-analysis explored the robustness of a highly cited study showing that those with low self-esteem perceived benefits for self-disclosure through Facebook compared to face-to-face interactions (i.e., Forest & Wood, 2012, Study 1). Seven preregistered direct replication attempts of this study were conducted by research teams as part of the Collaborative Replication and Education Project (CREP), and results were meta-analyzed to better understand the strength and consistency of the effects reported in the original study. Half of the original results were clearly supported: Self-esteem negatively predicted perceived safety of self-disclosure on Facebook as compared to face-to-face interactions (meta-analytic effect size = -.28, original effect size = -.31), and self-esteem did not relate to perceived opportunities for self-expression; across the 7 replications, all 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for effect sizes included 0. However, 2 other findings received less support: Self-esteem only weakly and inconsistently predicted perceived advantages of self-disclosure on Facebook (meta analytic effect size = -.16, original effect size = -.30), and contrary to the original study, there was no evidence for self-esteem predicting perceived opportunities for connection with others on Facebook (6 of the 7 replication effect size CIs contained 0). The results provided further evidence regarding the original study’s generalizability and robustness. The implications of the research and its relevance to social compensation theory is presented, and considerations for future multisite replications are proposed.
Matthew J. Bolton and Lara K. Ault, Saint Leo University
ABSTRACT: Individuals with disabilities, disorders, and neurological conditions continue to be ostracized by society. Recent work has indicated that autistic college students, concerned about their peers’ acceptance of and responses to their autism-related behavior, may fear disclosing their condition. The present study examined college student and nonstudent attitudes toward individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), focusing on participants’ perceptions of these individuals based on their own knowledge of and interpersonal experiences with autism, and awareness of diagnosis when interacting with autistic individuals. Participants (n = 176) responding to an online survey read a vignette in which they worked on a project with someone exhibiting unusual behavior. They either knew or were unaware of the ASC diagnosis via random assignment. They then indicated positive and negative affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses to the vignette character. Overall, results revealed a pattern of familiarity, r(144) = .25, p = .002, and similarity, r(152) = .19, p = .017, correlating with positive cognitions about the autistic person. In addition, experience and diagnosis awareness interacted, F(1, 146) = 9.84, p = .002, ηp2 = 0.06, power = .88, such that those with first-hand, interaction-based experience with ASC, who knew the diagnosis, showed fewer negative behavioral responses, F(1, 146) = 9.84, p = .002, ηp2 = 0.06, power = .88. For those unfamiliar with ASCs, diagnosis awareness did not reduce negativity. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Abigail A. Camden and Jennifer L. Hughes, Agnes Scott College
ABSTRACT: Relationships with parents such as those addressed in attachment theory can dictate emotion processing and perception of situations. Namely, insecure parental attachment (i.e., higher attachment-based anxiety and avoidance scores; Fraley, Heffernan, Vicary, & Brumbaugh, 2011b) can compromise emotion regulation and affect. However, although previous attachment research has addressed emotions during daily positive events (Gentzler, Kerns, & Keener, 2010), to our knowledge no studies have evaluated participants’ attachment in relation to their emotions during major positive life events that involve their parents (e.g., a wedding or holiday). Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate this and extend previous research (Gentzler & Kerns, 2006; Gentzler et al., 2010; Sheinbaum et al., 2015). This is important because major positive life events might solidify internal working models of attachment. Additionally, secure attachment and savoring positive emotions correlate with well-being. Participants (N = 310; Mage = 31.26) completed measures of attachment (i.e., attachment-based anxiety and avoidance) and emotions (e.g., joy, stress) in positive life events involving parents. Results of multiple hierarchical regression showed that insecure attachment predicted decreased joy (p < .001) and increased stress (p < .001) for positive events, after controlling for gender and age. Similarly, for imagined future events, insecure attachment predicted less positive emotions (p < .001) and more negative emotions (p < .001). These results imply that parental attachment can negatively impact positive emotions such as joy during positive life events. Implications and applications are discussed.
Zenab Saeed and Tammy L. Sonnentag, Xavier University
ABSTRACT: Students regularly engage in self-evaluations by comparing their performance to their peers’ performance (Strickhouser & Zell, 2015), which may influence their feelings about themselves and willingness to persist in college. Because failure is a natural component of learning, it is important to examine how to promote students’ development when performance is weak relative to their peers. The current study examined if self-compassion moderates the impact of social comparisons on students’ self-evaluations and affect across two domains relevant to college life: academic and interpersonal competence. Students (N = 245) completed a test of academic or interpersonal skills and then received either no feedback or false feedback reporting their performance as below average, average, or above average relative to peers. Participants then completed measures of self-evaluation, affect, and self-compassion. In the academic, F(4,103) = 9.20, p < .001, R2 = .26, p < .001, and interpersonal, F(4,105) = 14.88, p < .001, R2 = .36, p < .001, domains, participants reported more negative affect (but not self-evaluations) when performance was below average compared to average, above average, or when no feedback was given. Self-compassion was associated with more positive affect, βs > .25, p < .001, and less negative affect, βs < -.28, p < .001, in both domains, with the impact of self-compassion in the interpersonal domain particularly important for positive affect, F(7, 102) = 13.74, ΔR2 = .15, p < .001, when performance was average or above average. Increasing students’ self-compassion shows potential for shaping their reactions to social comparisons.
Derek Baker and Christopher R. Chartier, Ashland University
ABSTRACT: In the present study, we tested to see if participants were attentive to details in the consent form for a psychological experiment before signing it. Our initial hypothesis was that participants might not read attentively, due to perceiving the information to be mundane. Depending on condition, the code word was placed in an early, middle, or late section of the consent form. This experiment allowed us to analyze whether participants read through the consent form, and if they paid more attention to a specific part of the form than others. We asked participants to read through the consent form and sign at the bottom when they were finished. Following their signed consent, we orally gave instructions on how to complete the filler task. At the conclusion of the study, participants were given a prompt to recall the code word. The results of this preregistered study show that, of the 136 participants, only 20 participants correctly recalled the code word. A χ2 test of independence revealed that successfully noticing the code word did not depend on the location on the consent form, χ2(2, N = 136) = 0.67, p = 0.72, φ = 0.07. The results of this study show that students did not differentially respond to different parts of the consent form.
Courtney D. Gross and Albee Therese O. Mendoza, Wesley College
ABSTRACT: Little research has been conducted regarding the perceptions of violence and the variables that influence these perceptions, especially in a population primed for more aggressive behaviors than others: collegiate athletes. The present study examined the effects of trait aggression and exposure to media on perceptions of violence in athletes using a 2 x 2 x 3 design. Participants (N = 91) were randomly assigned to watch a violent or nonviolent video clip after completing a demographic questionnaire that included athletic status and a trait aggression questionnaire. After watching the clip, participants completed a provocation stories task. Although there was no main effect of exposure to media, F(1, 79) = 0.18, p = .675, η2p = .002, power = .070, there were main effects for trait aggression, F(1, 79) = 16.47, p ≤ .001, η2p = .173, power = .980, and athletic status, F(2, 79) = 4.88, p = .010, η2p = .110, power = .789. No 2-way interactions were observed. Results indicated a statistically significant 3-way interaction, F(2, 79) = 3.17, p = .047, η2p = .074, power = .592. The study’s implications for college students, especially those with high levels of trait aggression, and future directions are discussed.
Ashley Raver, Hanna Murchake, and Holly M. Chalk, McDaniel College
ABSTRACT: Given the importance of identity development and belonging for emerging adults, it is critical to examine how positive disability identity, one’s affirmative sense of identity as a person with a disability, relates to sense of belonging and need to belong in young adults with disabilities. Data were collected from a multi-institution collaboration across 32 sites. Participants with a disability (N = 502) completed online, self-report measures of need to belong, sense of belonging, social support, and positive disability identity. As expected, those who perceived greater social support were more likely to report a sense of belonging (r ranged from .36 to .55, p < .05) and positive disability identity (r ranged from .18 to .41, p < .05). Positive disability identity was more strongly related to sense of belonging in those who self-identify with a disability (z = 4.16, p < .001, Cohen’s q = .40). Also as hypothesized, positive disability identity predicted sense of belonging, even after controlling for the effects of social support and need to belong, in both those who identified with a disability (R2Δ = .12, Cohens f2 = .14) and those who did not self-identify (R2Δ = .02, Cohens f2 = .02). These findings suggest that, although social support and a low need to belong were associated with a strong sense of belonging, developing a positive disability identity is also important in predicting a sense of belonging in emerging adults with disabilities.
Not All Roles Are the Same: An Examination Between Work-Family-School Satisfaction, Social Integration, and Negative Affect Among College Students
Emily C. Denning, Portland State University; Debi Brannan, Western Oregon University; Lauren A. Murphy, Northeastern University; Josephina A. Losco, Western Oregon University; and Danielle N. Payne, University of Washington
ABSTRACT: With many adults returning to college, an increasing number of university students are balancing multiple roles including work, family, and school. The impact of strain from balancing these multiple roles was investigated considering student satisfaction within different domains (i.e., work, family, and school) as a predictor of students’ negative affect in a sample of working college students from across the country (via MTurk; N = 145). Participants were required to be enrolled in a university or college at least part time, employed at least part time, and living with another person. Results revealed that social integration was negatively associated with negative affect across domains. Work satisfaction was predictive of negative affect, and it was also moderated by social integration, β = -.93, t(136) = 2.08, p = .04. School and family satisfaction, however, were not significant predictors of negative affect, thus suggesting the unique roles of each specific domain. This work suggests it is important to focus on the unique experiences of modernday college students, and the challenges of balancing work, family, and school, in order to better support this rapidly growing unique group of individuals.