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Psi Chi Journal Summer 2018


Volume 23.3 | Summer 2018
Download This Issue - All articles are now free.

INVITED EDITORIAL: Writing Quantitative Empirical Manuscripts With Rigor and Flair (Yes, It’s Possible)

Marianne Fallon, Central Connecticut State University

ABSTRACT: As a scientist, you are obligated to share your discoveries with colleagues and with the world. You had better do it well. In this article, I offer suggestions for writing up empirical manuscripts with quantitative data. You will learn a lot about what goes into a good manuscript, informed by the American Psychological Association’s Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2010) and the most recent Journal Article Reporting Standards (Appelbaum et al., 2018). Further, you will learn a good deal about how to write your manuscript so that people might enjoy reading it. Taking my cue from writing rockstars both within and beyond psychology, I encourage all scientists to adopt a classic style that puts writers and readers on a level playing field. Although I have geared this article toward emergent researchers, I hope that seasoned researchers and educators might glean something new, or at the very least, enjoy reading it.

Self-Affirmation Intervention to Remove Negative Effects Due to Self-Objectification

Sarrah I. Ali and Heike I. M. Mahler, University of California, San Diego

ABSTRACT: Prior studies have shown that self-objectification can negatively affect body image in both women and men. However, it is not yet fully understood how to remove or reduce these negative effects. One strategy that may be beneficial is self-affirmation. Self-affirmation tasks often boost mood and state self-esteem, which can potentially be negatively affected by self-objectification. To investigate this, 178 college students (125 women and 53 men) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions in a 2 (self-objectification condition: objectified vs. not objectified) x 3 (self-affirmation condition: self-affirmation vs. control affirmation vs. no affirmation) between-subjects design. The results did not demonstrate any statistically significant main effects of self-objectification or interactions between self-objectification condition and self-affirmation condition on either drive for thinness or drive for muscularity (all ps ≥ .08). However, the results did demonstrate that focusing on nonappearance-related values might be useful in improving general body image because the affirmation intervention reduced participants’ drive for thinness, F(2, 175) = 3.90, p = .022, eta2 = .05, drive for muscularity, F(2, 175) = 3.47, p = .033, eta2 = .04, and feelings of self-objectification, F(2, 175) = 3.72, p = .026, eta2 = .04, regardless of the self-objectification condition.

/ The Relationship Between Extraversion and Listening Comprehension Under High- and Low-Salience Visual Distraction Conditions

Nicole Virzi, Steven V. Rouse , and Cindy Miller-Perrin, Pepperdine University

ABSTRACT: The present study contributed to the body of research examining the link between level of extraversion and response to sensory stimulation. Previous studies have shown that introverts are more susceptible to, and therefore more distracted by, forms of auditory stimulation than extraverts when completing cognitive tasks. However, no study has examined the differing effects of solely visual stimulation on both distraction and cognitive task performance. Using 90 undergraduate college students as participants, this study tested 3 hypotheses: (a) we expected a negative correlation between level of extraversion and self-reported distraction while under high-salience visual stimulation; (b) we predicted a positive correlation between participants’ extraversion score and performance on a listening comprehension task while under high-salience visual stimulation, defined operationally as number of comprehension questions answered correctly; and (c) we expected that the aforementioned correlation would be higher than the correlation between level of extraversion and performance on a listening comprehension task while under low-salience visual stimulation. Although results did not lend support to the idea of these differences in sensory stimulation applying to different forms of visual stimulation (for all correlations, p = n.s.), we highlight the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. We provide specific suggestions for future research to help identify those most susceptible to distractions as well as how to best protect individuals from their detrimental consequences.

Reward Responsiveness Moderates Individuals With Disordered Eating’s Implicit Attitudes Toward the Caloric Value of Food

Brittany A. Mascioli and Ron Davis, Lakehead University

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between disordered eating and implicit attitude toward the caloric value of food and, furthermore, to assess whether the personality dimension of reward responsiveness or the more specific construct of reward-based eating drive could better account for contradictory findings in the literature. University student volunteers (N = 100) completed an online questionnaire battery before attending a laboratory session and completing an implicit association test assessing the differential evaluation of high- and low-calorie food. A positive implicit attitude toward low-calorie food was observed in a large proportion of participants (94%). Reward responsiveness was found to moderate the relationship between disordered eating and implicit caloric-related attitude, 95% CIs [0.02, 0.07]. Among those high in reward responsiveness, disordered eating predicted a stronger positive implicit attitude toward low-calorie food. Reward-based eating drive did not moderate the association between disordered eating and implicit caloric-related attitude, 95% CIs [-0.10, 0.14]. The obtained results support the idea of approach and avoidance temperaments, characterized by sensitivity to reward and punishment, and offer evidence of an eating-related behavioural manifestation of such temperaments.

/ Doing a 180: Examining the Stability and Reversal of Behavioral Confirmation Effects

Jennifer L. Mezzapelle and Michael R. Andreychik, Fairfield University

ABSTRACT: For decades, social psychologists have examined the concept of behavioral expectancies, also known as self-fulfilling prophecies, and the long-lasting impact that they can have on individuals’ lives. The reversal of such expectancy effects has received much less attention. The present study focused on the questions of how stable behavioral tendencies elicited via self-fulfilling prophecies are, and the ease, or difficulty, with which expectancy-congruent behavioral tendencies can be reversed. To examine these questions, participants completed varying numbers of computerized reaction time tasks against computer opponents. Participants first played 1, 3, or 5 games against opponents who treated them with hostility, followed by a single game against an opponent who treated them with kindness, and finally played against an opponent who displayed neutral behavior toward them. We predicted that the more times participants played against a hostile opponent, the more difficult it would be for the participants to reduce expectancy-congruent hostile behavior through interaction with an opponent who treated them with kindness. Contrary to our prediction, participants who played the most games against hostile opponents before being exposed to a kind opponent were significantly kinder to the final neutral opponent than were other participants who received less hostile treatment (p = .002). These results suggest that it may be possible to counteract the negative effects of behavioral expectancies in some cases. Discussion centers on examining connections between this work and scholarship on empathy and altruism, as well as a consideration of future directions suggested by the results.

Cna Uoy Raed Thsi Nwo? Contextual and Stimulus Effects on Decoding Scrambled Words

Sarah J. Starling and Kelsey A. Snyder, DeSales University

ABSTRACT: We explored 2 factors that may influence a reader’s ability to decode scrambled words: scrambling method and prior context. Across both experiments, participants unscrambled the final word of a sentence. In Experiment 1, we manipulated how the word was scrambled (either entirely reordered or with the first and last letters in correct position) and the order of the previous words in the sentence (correctly ordered or scrambled). Participants were more accurate (p < .001, η2 = .81) and faster (p < .001, η2 = .70) at unscrambling the target word when the first and last letters were correctly positioned. They were also more accurate (p < .005, η2 = .25) and faster (p < .001, η2 = .61) when the sentence was correctly ordered. In Experiment 2, the target word had either high or low predictability. Participants were more accurate (p < .001, η2 = .90) and faster (p < .001, η2 = .49) when the final word was highly predictable. Across both experiments, interaction effects demonstrated that, although correcting position of the first and last letter of a word always improved accuracy and speed of decoding, participants only fully benefited from predictive contextual information when a more challenging scramble type was used. These findings suggest that not all scrambled words are equally easy to read. Correcting position of the first and last letter of the word and making the final word more predictable may help to narrow the ways in which the word is unscrambled, thus improving performance.

/ The Effects of Perceived Attractiveness on Expected Opening Gambit Style

Ryan S. Wood, Shawn R. Charlton, Lauren B. Goodman, and Staeria R. Thompson, University of Central Arkansas

ABSTRACT: Opening gambits, informally known as pick-up lines, are brief verbal transmissions generally used to initiate a conversation with a potential mate. One potential factor that could play a role in the effectiveness of an opening gambit is the physical appearance of the contributor. A person’s physical appearance can be influential on other’s opinions and judgments, often leading into stereotyped expectations. The present study addressed the possibility that opening gambit expectations, from the perspective of the recipient, would be impacted by the approaching individuals’ physical appearance, specifically their facial attractiveness. Results indicated that participants expected attractive individuals to use direct opening gambits (M = 10.84, SD = 3.33) more often than less attractive individuals (M = 5.87, SD = 2.87), F(1,114) = 72.97, p < .001, ηp2 = .39. Less attractive individuals were expected to more often use innocuous (Less attractive: M = 11.75, SD = 4.55; Attractive: M = 9.64, SD = 2.01), F(1,114) = 8.91, p = .003, ηp2 = .07, or flippant opening gambits (Less attractive: M = 7.28, SD = 4.35; Attractive: M = 4.62, SD = 2.25), F(1,114) = 13.01, p < .001, ηp2 = .10. The results also showed interactions between the expected opening gambits usage, the attractiveness of the stimulus, and the target gender stimulus. This study illustrates the impact that perceptions of facial attractiveness have on expectations regarding the initiation of social interactions and potential romantic relationships.

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