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Psi Chi Journal Spring 2020


Volume 25.1 | Spring 2020
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The Effect of Model Minority Myth Salience on White Americans’ Perceptions of Black Americans and Their Support for Affirmative Action

Timothy Lee , University of Kansas; and H. Robert Outten, Trinity College

ABSTRACT: A tenet of the model minority myth (MMM) is that Asian Americans have a greater proclivity toward being successful than other minorities. Informed by racial triangulation theory (Kim, 1999), we examined if exposing White Americans to information consistent with the MMM would increase the likelihood they appraise Blacks as low status and decrease their support for affirmative action policies. Participants either read an article that showed Asians with the highest median household income, followed by Whites and then Blacks (MMM salient condition), or an article that only depicted Whites with a higher median household income than Blacks (MMM not salient condition). To test our predictions, we conducted a one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance and two one-way Analyses of Variance using a Bonferroni procedure (α level of .025). The omnibus effect of MMM salience on a linear combination of perceived status of Blacks and affirmative action support was significant, Wilk’s Λ = 0.98, F(2, 619) = 5.71, p = .003, multivariate η2 = .018. In terms of the univariate findings, compared to Whites in the MMM not salient condition, Whites in the MMM salient condition were more likely to appraise Blacks as lower status, although this difference did not reach statistical significance, F(1, 620) = 4.20, p = .041, η2 = .007. Finally, those assigned to the MMM salient condition were significantly less supportive of affirmative action, F(1, 620) = 7.51, p = .006, η2 = .012. We discuss the implications of these findings and highlight potential avenues for future research.

KEYWORDS: model minority myth, household income, White Americans, perceived status of Black Americans, affirmative action

Comparison of Student Health and Well-Being Profiles and Social Media Use

Robert R. Wright, Chad Schaeffer, Rhett Mullins , and Austin Evans , Brigham Young University–Idaho; Laure Cast , Joya Communications Inc

ABSTRACT: Recently, social media and social networking sites (SNS) have become increasingly accessible and popular, especially among college students. However, it remains unclear as to the effects associated with this increased SNS use on users’ health and well-being (e.g., social, mental, physical). As such, the current study examined the well-being of different SNS users across 5 platforms (i.e., Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram, Marco Polo, LinkedIn) among college students (N = 630). Participants completed an online questionnaire assessing daily use of these SNS and health-related constructs in social, mental, and physical domains. Results suggest that users of image-based SNS (i.e., Snapchat) showed the most deficits and users of video-based (e.g., Marco Polo) and professional (e.g., LinkedIn) SNS had the best well-being profiles. However, regardless of SNS platform used, increased total daily SNS use was related to worse outcomes. As such, use of certain types of SNS platforms may be more harmful to user well-being than others, although causal directionality remains unclear.

KEYWORDS: social media, social networking, well-being, health, technology

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Belonging and Marital Perception Variances in Emerging Adults With Differing Disability Identities

Owen Long and Holly M. Chalk , McDaniel College

ABSTRACT: Emerging adulthood is a developmental period during which adults begin making choices regarding love, work, and partnerships. This experience may be different for those with a disability, depending on how they self-identify. The present study was the first to examine differences in belonging and the importance of marriage in those who self-identify as disabled, those who have a disabling impairment but do not self-identify, and those who do not have a disability. This study examined participants’ general sense of belonging, as well as their need to belong, which refers to the feeling that belonging is important. Emerging adults across 32 institutions between the ages of 18 and 29 (N = 2,016) completed the Emerging Adults Measured at Multiple Institutions 2 survey including measures of disability identity, sense of belonging, need to belong and the importance of marriage. Results indicate that emerging adults who self-identify as disabled report a lower sense of belonging and a higher need to belong than those without a disability. Additionally, emerging adults with a disabling impairment valued marriage less than those without a disability. These results suggest that disability identity is related to differing levels of confidence in marital relationships, sense of belonging, and need to belong. These findings could be considered by clinicians who work with emerging adults with disabling impairments, who may feel limited in these areas.

KEYWORDS: emerging adulthood, belonging, marriage, EAMMi2


The Effects of Conversation Arousal Level on Attention Processes

Heidi H. Fu , Kristin A. White, and Raymond D. Collings, State University of New York College at Cortland

ABSTRACT: The current study investigated how arousal level during phone conversations affects specific attention processes (i.e., executive, orienting, phasic alertness, and vigilance). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 conversation conditions (i.e., no conversation, low emotional arousal, and high emotional arousal) while completing either a spatial cueing task (Exp. 1) or a Stroop Test (Exp. 2). Neither orienting nor phasic alertness were affected by conversation, but both overall reaction time (RT) and intraindividual variability (vigilance) increased when the conversation was introduced, t(49) = 5.01, p = .001, r2 = .34, and t(49) = 2.44, p = .009, r2 = .11, respectively. Stroop Test RT was significantly increased by conversation when attentional demands were low (congruent), t(50) = 2.22, p = .031, r2 = .09, but not when attention demands were high (incongruent). Level of conversation arousal did not moderate these effects. Our findings suggest that competition for executive attention by the task and by the conversation are dynamic. This has implications for safe cell phone use while performing everyday activities (e.g., driving, work, studying).

KEYWORDS: conversation arousal, attention processes, executive attention, orienting alerting, phasic alerting

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Contexts of Communication Apprehension and Their Relation to Self-Esteem

Alejandro R. Campero-Oliart , Christopher T. Lovelace , and Lindsey C. Levitan, Shepherd University

ABSTRACT: With extensive research having illustrated the lack of self-esteem nourishing attributes that individuals with communication apprehension exhibit, the present investigation evaluated the strength of correlations between general and context-specific forms of communication apprehension and self-esteem. College students (N = 40; Mage = 19.48) completed measures that assessed their general and context-specific communication apprehension as well as their self-esteem. General and context-specific forms of communication apprehension were all predicted to be strongly and negatively correlated with self-esteem, and the correlation between interpersonal communication apprehension and self-esteem was predicted to be the strongest out of all contexts of communication apprehension. A linear regression showed a significant relation between general communication apprehension and self-esteem (R = .61, R2adj = .36, p < .001). Multicollinearity in the multiple regression prevented the intended test for differences in strength of correlations between contexts of communication apprehension and self-esteem. Bivariate correlations signaled that all contexts of communication apprehension are considerably correlated with self-esteem, with the small group context as the most closely related to self-esteem (r = -.59, r2 = .35, p < .001), and the meeting context as the least closely related (r = -.42, r2 = .18, p = .007). The present findings illustrate the strong relation between general communication apprehension and self-esteem even among individuals with higher-than-normative levels of communication apprehension and suggest that those with acute communication apprehension might experience similar effects on self-esteem across context-specific forms of communication apprehension.

KEYWORDS: communication apprehension, self-esteem, context-specific communication apprehension, competence, independence, connectivity

It's for Their Health: Encouraging Autonomy During Emerging Adulthood

Moriah B. Geller and Julia K. Boehm , Chapman University

ABSTRACT: Improving health behaviors, especially among emerging adults, is no easy task. The present research sought to develop an intervention to improve health behavior by harnessing emerging adults’ desire for autonomy. Ninety-one participants between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M = 19.36 years) were randomly assigned to a control condition (n = 43) or an experimental condition (n = 48) in which they described ways in which they, rather than others, were in control of their health. We hypothesized that, compared to those in the control condition, those in the experimental condition would feel more in control of their health and make healthier food and drink choices when presented with a variety of options. Results indicated that postintervention internal health locus of control scores did not differ between those in the experimental and control conditions. However, there was an effect of the intervention on snack choice such that those in the experimental condition selected significantly fewer unhealthy snacks than those in the control condition, t(89) = -2.02, p = .046. These results suggest that encouraging emerging adults to think about ways in which they are in control of their health may translate into healthier food-related behaviors.

KEYWORDS: emerging adulthood, health, health behaviors, autonomy, control

Behavioral and Event Related Potential Measures of Response Initiation and Response Inhibition by Age and Sensation Seeking

Michelle Lobermeier and Sierra Peters , St Norbert College

ABSTRACT: High sensation seeking is associated with increased propensity toward risky behaviors that can be detrimental to oneself and others (Horvath & Zuckerman, 1993). Younger adults not only tend to have higher sensation-seeking scores than older adults, but also demonstrate a greater inclination toward risky behaviors (Cowell, Patiel, & Peters, 2019; Turner & McClure, 2003). The present study considered whether risk-taking behavior is a function of an overactive initiation system (a strong, immediate response to a stimulus) or an underactive inhibitory system (inability to resist an immediate response). With this in mind, the present study examined differences in response initiation and response inhibition among low and high sensation seekers as well as older and younger adults. Participants (18 younger adults and 24 older adults) completed a sensation-seeking questionnaire and Go/No-go task. The results showed differences in inhibition between age groups, controlling for sensation seeking, as measured by the P300 component (η2 = .22) and reaction time (η2 = .24). In regard to response initiation measured by the late contingent negative variation, the results revealed no differences between age groups or sensation-seeking groups. Any significant findings were exclusive to certain electrode sites, however, so results remain somewhat inconsistent regarding widespread and stable group differences. The present study demonstrates that individual differences, such as age and sensation seeking, may play a role in response initiation and inhibition, underscoring the complexity of the process that leads to risky behavior.

KEYWORDS: electroencephalography, sensation seeking, risky behavior, age

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Miniature Horses Have Big Advantages: Improved Stress, Mood for Both Airport Travelers and College Students

Shelby Makayla Reynolds , Miami University Regionals; Virginia Blythe Wickline , Georgia Southern University; Ashley R. Bruner , Ana Joi Sanford, and Emily Steele; Miami University Regionals

ABSTRACT: The current research expanded the field of animal-assisted therapy by utilizing miniature therapy horses for the first time in research. We sought to determine if and how animal-assisted therapy with miniature horses affected positive mood, negative mood, and stress levels in 2 distinct populations: (a) airplane travelers at an international airport and (b) residential and commuter college students at a Midwestern university. In a repeated-measures design, a convenience sample consisting of 67 individuals and diverse in gender and ethnicity (17 airport travelers, 50 college students) was given a pretest survey, interacted with the horses as long as they wanted, and completed a follow-up survey. Participants showed decreases in negative mood (d = .41, p < .001), decreases in current stress (d = .93, p < .001), and increases in positive mood (d = .26, p = .003), without indicating changes in our manipulation check, general stress level (d = .14, p = .36). The findings suggest temporary benefits of interactions with the miniature horses for two very distinct populations.

KEYWORDS: animal-assisted therapy, miniature horses, airport travelers, college students, mood

Learning R Programming Language With Psi Chi

April Staples , Weatherford College; and Jordan R. Wagge , Avila University

ABSTRACT: Public archival of research materials and the use of free open software such as R programming language help promote the tenants of transparency, openness, and reproducibility. For many, learning a programming language can be overwhelming. Recognizing the need for a fun and engaging learning project, the Psi Chi Research Advisory Committee (RAC) decided to establish the PsiChiR contest. The goal of the contest is to provide an opportunity for users of all levels to practice and further develop their R skills. The first PsiChiR contest launches March 2020.

KEYWORDS: R programming, research methods, statistics, conducting research, open science

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